cstr-10k_20171231.htm

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ________to________

Commission File Number 001-37886

 

CAPSTAR FINANCIAL HOLDINGS, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

Tennessee

 

81-1527911

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

1201 Demonbreun Street, Suite 700

Nashville, Tennessee

 

37203

(Address of principal executive office)

 

(zip code)

(615) 732-6400

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

Title of each class:

 

Name on Exchange on which Registered:

 

 

Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YES  NO 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES NO 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files). YES NO 

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

(Do not check if a small reporting company)

  

Small reporting company

 

 

 

 

  

Emerging growth company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES  NO 

 

As of June 30, 2017, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $199,313,424, based on the closing sales price of $17.74 per share as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

 

 

Shares outstanding as of February 26, 2018

Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share

11,560,593

Non-voting Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share

132,561

 

Portions of the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the 2018 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, which will be filed within 120 days after December 31, 2017, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

1

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

15

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

32

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

32

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

33

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

33

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

34

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

37

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

38

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

57

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

58

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

110

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

110

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

110

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

111

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

111

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

111

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

111

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

111

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

112

Item 16.

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

114

 

 

 

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TERMINOLOGY

Unless this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Report”) indicates otherwise or the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “our,” “us,” ”Company,” ”CapStar,” “CapStar Financial,” as used herein refer to CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc., and its subsidiary, CapStar Bank, which we sometimes refer to as “our bank subsidiary,” “the bank” or “our bank”.  References herein to the fiscal years 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 mean our fiscal years ended December 31, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively.

 

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).  These forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “predict,” “potential,” “believe,” “will likely result,” “expect,” “continue,” “will,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “projection,” “forecast,” “goal,” “target,” “would,” and “outlook,” or the negative version of those words or other comparable words of a future or forward-looking nature. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based upon current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. The inclusion of these forward-looking statements should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that such expectations, estimates and projections will be achieved. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and that are beyond our control. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date of this Report, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:

Economic conditions (including interest rate environment, government economic and monetary policies, the strength of global financial markets and inflation and deflation) that impact the financial services industry as a whole and/or our business; the concentration of our business in the Nashville metropolitan statistical area (“MSA”) and the effect of changes in the economic, political and environmental conditions on this market; increased competition in the financial services industry, locally, regionally or nationally, which may adversely affect pricing and the other terms offered to our clients; our dependence on our management team and board of directors and changes in our management and board composition; our reputation in the community; our ability to execute our strategy and to achieve loan and deposit growth through organic growth and strategic acquisitions; credit risks related to the size of our borrowers and our ability to adequately assess and limit our credit risk; our concentration of large loans to a small number of borrowers; the significant portion of our loan portfolio that originated during the past two years and therefore may less reliably predict future collectability than older loans; the adequacy of reserves (including our allowance for loan losses) and the appropriateness of our methodology for calculating such reserves; adverse trends in the healthcare service industry, which is an integral component of our market’s economy; our management of risks inherent in our commercial real estate loan portfolio, and the risk of a prolonged downturn in the real estate market, which could impair the value of our collateral and our ability to sell collateral upon any foreclosure; governmental legislation and regulation, including changes in the nature and timing of the adoption and effectiveness of new requirements under the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, as amended, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, as amended, Basel guidelines, capital requirements, accounting regulation or standards and other applicable laws and regulations; the loss of large depositor relationships, which could force us to fund our business through more expensive and less stable sources; operational and liquidity risks associated with our business, including liquidity risks inherent in correspondent banking; volatility in interest rates and our overall management of interest rate risk, including managing the sensitivity of our interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities to interest rates, and the impact to our earnings from a change in interest rates; the potential for our Bank’s regulatory lending limits and other factors related to our size to restrict our growth and prevent us from effectively implementing our business strategy; strategic acquisitions we may undertake to achieve our goals; the sufficiency of our capital, including sources of capital and the extent to which we may be required to raise additional capital to meet our goals; fluctuations to the fair value of our investment securities that are beyond our control; deterioration in the fiscal position of the U.S. government and downgrades in Treasury and federal

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agency securities; potential exposure to fraud, negligence, computer theft and cyber-crime; the adequacy of our risk management framework; our dependence on our information technology and telecommunications systems and the potential for any systems failures or interruptions; our dependence upon outside third parties for the processing and handling of our records and data; our ability to adapt to technological change; the financial soundness of other financial institutions; our exposure to environmental liability risk associated with our lending activities; our engagement in derivative transactions; our involvement from time to time in legal proceedings and examinations and remedial actions by regulators; the susceptibility of our market to natural disasters and acts of God; and the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and our ability to remediate any future material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting.

The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Risk Factors” included in this Report.  If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from our forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of this Report, and we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by law.  New risks and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict their occurrence or how they will affect us.

 

MARKET DATA

Market data used in this Report has been obtained from government and independent industry sources and publications available to the public, sometimes with a subscription fee, as well as from research reports prepared for other purposes. Industry publications and surveys and forecasts generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. The Company did not commission the preparation of any of the sources or publications referred to in this Report. The Company has not independently verified the data obtained from these sources, and, although the Company believes such data to be reliable as of the dates presented, it could prove to be inaccurate. Forward-looking information obtained from these sources is subject to the same qualifications and the additional uncertainties regarding the other forward-looking statements in this Report.

 

 

iii


 

PART I

ITEM 1.  BUSINESS

OVERVIEW

CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc. is a bank holding company that is headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee and that operates primarily through its wholly owned subsidiary, CapStar Bank, a Tennessee-chartered state bank.  CapStar Bank was incorporated in the State of Tennessee in 2007 and acquired a state charter in 2008 which was accomplished through a de novo application with the Tennessee Department of Financial Institutions (“TDFI”) and the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Upon approval of its charter, CapStar Bank opened for business to the public on July 14, 2008. CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc. was incorporated in 2015 and, on February 5, 2016, completed a share exchange with CapStar Bank’s shareholders that resulted in CapStar Bank becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company.

We are a commercial bank that seeks to establish and maintain comprehensive relationships with our clients by delivering customized and creative banking solutions and superior client service. Our products and services include (i) commercial and industrial loans to small and medium sized businesses, with a particular focus on businesses operating in the healthcare industry, (ii) commercial real estate loans, (iii) private banking and wealth management services for the owners and operators of our business clients and other high net worth individuals and (iv) correspondent banking services to meet the needs of Tennessee’s smaller community banks. Our operations are presently concentrated in the Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area (“MSA”).

As of December 31, 2017, on a consolidated basis, we had total assets of $1.3 billion, total deposits of $1.1 billion, total net loans of $934 million, and shareholders’ equity of $147 million.

Core Operating Principles

We operate our business in conformity with our core principles which are, in order of priority:

 

Soundness - We strive to engage in safe and sound banking practices that preserve the asset quality of our balance sheet and protect our deposit base and ensure we maintain capital levels that are considered above “well capitalized” according to regulatory standards.

 

Profitability - We continuously seek to improve our core profits by growing our revenue faster than our expenses in order to increase net income and improve our profitability metrics.

 

Strategic Growth - We seek to grow our total loans and deposits by leveraging our operating platform to facilitate organic and acquisitive growth.

We have historically adhered to these core operating principles, and we intend to continue to emphasize the importance of these principles to the conduct of our business.

Acquisitions

On July 31, 2012, our bank completed its acquisition of American Security, a Tennessee banking corporation headquartered in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Our bank acquired all outstanding shares of common stock of American Security for approximately $15.2 million in total consideration which was comprised of the issuance of approximately 1.5 million shares of common stock of our bank. At the time of the acquisition, American Security had two banking locations located in Sumner County, Tennessee. The operations of American Security are included in CapStar Bank’s financial statements beginning on July 31, 2012.

On February 3, 2014, CapStar Bank completed its acquisition of Farmington Financial Group, LLC, a Tennessee limited liability company headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. Farmington primarily originates residential real estate loans that are sold in the secondary market. The bank acquired all the assets and liabilities of Farmington for approximately $6.4 million in total consideration which was comprised of $3.0 million in cash, 100,000 shares of common stock of our bank and a five year earn-out based on pre-tax income. The operations of Farmington are included in CapStar Bank’s financial statements beginning on February 3, 2014.

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Our Products and Services

Loans

General Through our bank, we offer a broad range of commercial lending products to small and medium sized businesses, the owners and operators of our business clients and other high net worth individuals. Our strategy is to maintain a broadly diversified loan portfolio in terms of type of loan product and type of client and industries in which our business clients are engaged.

Our commercial and industrial lending products include commercial loans, business term loans, equipment financing and lines of credit to a diversified mix of small and medium sized businesses. We offer commercial real estate loans that are collateralized by both owner-occupied and non-owner occupied properties, as well as interim construction loans. As a general practice, we originate substantially all of our loans, and we limit the amount of participations we purchase to loans originated by lead banks with which we have a close relationship and which share our credit philosophies.

Our consumer lending products include residential first mortgage loans which are typically thereafter sold on the secondary market. We offer second mortgage home equity mortgage loans and other consumer related loans such as loans for automobile or other recreational vehicles, which we maintain on the Bank’s balance sheet. Additionally, we offer lines of credit to facilitate investment opportunities for consumer clients whose financial characteristics support the request.

We market our lending products and services to existing clients through our client service. We seek to attract new lending clients through customized and creative lending solutions and competitive pricing. We have banking teams that are specifically dedicated to our lines of business, including a team that is dedicated to the healthcare sector. We believe our industry-specific knowledge, product and local market expertise and engagement increase our profile within these lending verticals, enable us to identify, select and compete for qualified borrowers and attractive financing projects and manage more effectively the potential risks of our loan portfolio.

Underwriting Disciplined underwriting is the foundation of our credit culture. We strive to adhere to thorough underwriting standards and deliver customized and creative loan solutions in a responsive and timely manner.

Philosophically, we seek loans that are prudent and desirable, not just “doable.” In considering a loan, we follow the underwriting principles in our loan and credit administration policies which include the following requirements:

 

receipt of certain financial information, such as financial statements, tax returns and credit reports, to ensure that the potential borrower has sufficient recurring cash flow and liquidity to repay the loan;

 

determination that the structure of the loan matches the underlying purpose of and repayment source for the loan, the potential borrower’s creditworthiness and the depreciable life of any collateral;

 

verification that the potential borrower has an adequate credit score;

 

consideration of the value, liquidity and marketability of the potential borrower’s assets and identifying and evaluating all significant direct and contingent liabilities; and

 

determination and approval by the bank’s Asset Liability Management Committee (“ALCO”) of the rates and fees associated with the potential loan.

Except in very limited circumstances in which substantial equity is present, our commercial and industrial and owner-occupied commercial real estate loans are supported by personal guaranties from the principals of the borrower. In addition, we require our non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans to be secured by well- managed income producing property with adequate margins, supported by a history of profitable operations and cash flows, and proven operating stability.

Our underwriting processes collaboratively engage our bankers, credit underwriters and portfolio managers in the analysis of each loan request. We manage our credit risks by analyzing metrics related to our lines of business in order to maintain a conservative and well-diversified loan portfolio reflective of our assessment of various subsets within these lines of business. Based upon our aggregate exposure to any given borrower relationship, we employ tiered review of loan originations that may involve senior credit officers, our Chief Credit Officer, our bank’s Credit Committee or, ultimately, our full board of directors.

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Concentrations  We are a relationship-oriented, rather than a transaction-based, lender.  Accordingly, substantially all of our loans have been made to borrowers located or operating in the Nashville MSA. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 85% of the loans in our loan portfolio (measured by dollar amount) were made to borrowers who live or conduct business in the Nashville MSA, and a substantial portion of those loans are considered commercial and industrial loans (including loans to businesses operating in the healthcare industry), commercial real estate loans (including owner-occupied and non-owner occupied real estate), mortgage loans and construction loans. As such, a substantial majority of our loan portfolio is dependent upon the economic environment of the Nashville MSA. We do have a limited number of loans secured by properties located outside of the Nashville MSA, most of which are made to borrowers who are well-known to us because they are headquartered or reside within the Nashville MSA.

In addition, we employ appropriate limits on our overall loan portfolio and requirements with respect to certain types of lending. As a general practice, we operate with an internal guideline limiting loans to any single borrowing relationship to a tiered amount based upon our internal risk rating. Many of our loans have been made to a small number of borrowers, resulting in a concentration of large loans to certain borrowers. As of December 31, 2017, our 25 largest borrowing relationships accounted for approximately 23% of our total loan portfolio.

Credit Risk Management  Managing credit risk is a process that involves the entire Company. Our strategy for credit risk management includes the disciplined underwriting process described above, adherence to prudent standards, and ongoing risk monitoring and review processes for all loan exposures. Our Chief Credit Officer provides bank-wide credit oversight and regularly reviews the loan portfolio to ensure that the risk identification processes are functioning properly and that our credit standards are followed. We periodically submit ourselves to review by independent third parties to validate our internal oversight. We strive to identify potential problem loans early in an effort to aggressively seek resolution of these situations before the loans become a loss, record any necessary charge-offs promptly and maintain adequate allowance levels for probable loan losses inherent in the loan portfolio.

Credit risk management involves a partnership between our lenders and our credit administration group with credit approval processes requiring concurrence of the two. The members of our credit administration group primarily focus their efforts on credit analysis, underwriting and monitoring new credits and providing management reporting to executive management and our board of directors. Based upon size, emerging problem loans are assigned to our Special Assets Group to mitigate the risk of loss. Executive management regularly reviews the status of the watch list and classified assets portfolio as well as the larger credits in the portfolio. Our Special Assets Group is also responsible for managing the collection and foreclosure process and the disposal of other real estate owned.

Deposits

Core deposits are our principal source of funds for use in lending and other general banking purposes. We solicit core deposits through our relationship-driven team of dedicated and accessible bankers and through relationship-focused marketing. We provide a full range of deposit products and services, including demand deposits, interest-bearing transaction accounts, money market accounts, time and savings deposits, certificates of deposit and CDARS® reciprocal products. Other than deposits obtained through the CDARS program, we do not rely on brokered deposits as a meaningful source of funding.

Our ability to gather deposits is an important aspect of our business franchise, and we believe this is a significant driver of our success. Our largest source of deposits is money market and savings accounts. Our transaction accounts include checking and NOW accounts, which provide us with a source of fee income, as well as a low-cost source of funds. Time accounts also provide us with a relatively stable and low-cost source of funding. Certificates of deposit in excess of $100,000 are held primarily by clients in the Nashville MSA.

Deposit rates are reviewed regularly by senior management as we continuously seek to price our deposit products and services competitively to promote core deposit growth. Our management believes that the rates that we offer are competitive with those offered by other institutions in the Nashville MSA.

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Correspondent Banking 

We provide correspondent banking services to community banks located in the State of Tennessee.  Services we offer include settlement, Fed Funds lines of credit, depository products, wire transfer services, bank holding company loans and loan participations on larger commercial and commercial real estate exposures.  Correspondent banking loans and deposits comprised approximately $22.8 million of our total loans and $153.0 million of our total deposits as of December 31, 2017. We include the amount of total loans and total deposits from our correspondent banking line of business in the amounts of our total loans and total deposits for our commercial and industrial line of business. Loans made to community banks operating in the correspondent banking line of business comprised 6% of commercial and industrial loans as of December 31, 2017. Deposits from community banks operating in the correspondent banking line of business comprised 14% of total deposits as of December 31, 2017.

Correspondent banking provides a valuable funding source for the bank. In 2013 management identified a void in the correspondent banking market due to the instability of larger correspondent banks. Other factors leading to the expansion of correspondent banking included a need to diversify our funding base, the desire by many community banks to do business with a Tennessee-based correspondent bank, the ability to recruit well-known and respected talent for business development and risk management, and the ability to license a low cost proprietary settlement platform.

Mortgage Banking

Our mortgage banking line of business generated $440.1 million in mortgage loan originations for the year ended December 31, 2017. Mortgage loans are typically sold in the secondary market and are underwritten by the investor. This line of business has provided the bank a source of noninterest income and referrals for other banking services including home equity lines of credit and deposit products.

Other Services

Given client demand for increased convenience and account access, we offer a range of products and services, including 24-hour telephone and online banking, direct deposit, mobile banking, safe deposit boxes, remote deposit and cash management services for individuals and small and medium sized business. We also participate in a shared network of automated teller machines and a debit card system that our customers are able to use throughout Tennessee and other regions. In many cases, we reimburse our customer for any ATM fees that may be charged to the customer.  

Competition

The financial services industry is highly competitive. The Nashville MSA banking market consisted of 64 financial institutions with over $57 billion in deposits as of June 30, 2017. We held the number 11 deposit market share position at June 30, 2017 with 2.0% of the deposit market share. We compete for loans, deposits, and financial services in the Nashville MSA. We compete directly with other bank and nonbank institutions located within our market area, Internet-based banks, out-of-market banks, and bank holding companies that advertise in or otherwise serve our market area, along with money market and mutual funds, brokerage houses, mortgage companies, and insurance companies or other commercial entities that offer financial services products. Competition involves efforts to retain current clients, obtain new loans and deposits, increase the scope and type of services offered, and offer competitive interest rates paid on deposits and charged on loans. Many of our competitors enjoy competitive advantages, including greater financial resources, a wider geographic presence, more accessible branch office locations, the ability to offer additional services, more favorable pricing alternatives, and lower origination and operating costs. Some of our competitors have been in business for a long time and have an established client base and name recognition. We believe that our experienced leadership, efficient and scalable operating model, personalized service and emphasis on attracting core deposits from our other product offerings enable us to effectively compete in the communities in which we operate.

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Information and Technology

We continually adapt to the changing technological needs and wants of our clients by investing in our electronic banking platform. We use a combination of online and mobile banking channels to attract and retain clients and expand the convenience of banking with us.  In most cases, our clients can initiate banking transactions from the convenience of their personal computer or smart phone, reducing the number of in-branch visits necessary to conduct routine banking transactions. The remote transactions available to our clients include remote image deposit, bill payment, external and internal transfers, ACH origination and wire transfer. We believe that our investments in technology and innovation are consistent with our clients’ needs and will support future migration of our clients’ transactions to these and other developing electronic banking channels.

Employees

As of December 31, 2017, we had 175 total employees. None of our employees are represented by any collective bargaining unit or are parties to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.

SUPERVISION AND REGULATION

General

Insured banks, their holding companies and their affiliates are extensively regulated under federal and state law. As a result, our growth and earnings performance and that of our subsidiaries may be affected not only by management decisions and general economic conditions, but also by the requirements of federal and state statutes and by the regulations and policies of various bank regulatory agencies, including the TDFI, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). Furthermore, tax laws administered by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and state taxing authorities, accounting rules developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), securities laws administered by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and state securities authorities, anti-money laundering laws enforced by the U.S. Department of the Treasury and mortgage related rules, including with respect to loan securitization and servicing by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and agencies such as Ginnie Mae and Freddie Mac, have an impact on our business. The effect of these statutes, regulations, regulatory policies and rules are significant to our operations and results and those of our bank, and the nature and extent of future legislative, regulatory or other changes affecting financial institutions are impossible to predict with any certainty.

Federal and state banking laws impose a comprehensive system of supervision, regulation and enforcement on the operations of insured banks, their holding companies and affiliates that is intended primarily for the protection of the depositors of banks, rather than their shareholders. These federal and state laws, and the regulations of the bank regulatory agencies issued under them, affect, among other things, the scope of business, the kinds and amounts of investments banks may make, reserve requirements, capital levels relative to operations, the nature and amount of collateral for loans, the establishment of branches, the ability to merge, consolidate and enter into acquisitions with other companies, dealings with insiders and affiliates and the payment of dividends.

This supervisory and regulatory framework subjects banks and bank holding companies to regular examination by their respective regulatory agencies, which results in examination reports and ratings that, while not publicly available, can impact the conduct and growth of their businesses. These examinations consider not only compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but also capital levels, asset quality and risk, management ability and performance, earnings, liquidity, and various other factors. The regulatory agencies generally have broad discretion to impose restrictions and limitations on the operations of a regulated entity where the agencies determine, among other things, that such operations are unsafe or unsound, fail to comply with applicable law or are otherwise inconsistent with laws and regulations or with the supervisory policies of these agencies.

The following is a summary of the material elements of the supervisory and regulatory framework applicable to us and our bank. It does not describe all of the statutes, regulations and regulatory policies that apply, nor does it restate all of the requirements of those that are described. The descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provision.

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Bank Holding Company Regulation

Since we own all of the capital stock of our bank, we are a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHC Act”). As a result, we are primarily subject to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the BHC Act and the regulations of the Federal Reserve.

Acquisition of Banks

The BHC Act requires every bank holding company to obtain the Federal Reserve’s prior approval before:

 

acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank if, after the acquisition, the bank holding company will, directly or indirectly, own or control 5% or more of the bank’s voting shares;

 

acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of any bank; or

 

merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company.

Additionally, the BHC Act provides that the Federal Reserve may not approve any of the above transactions if such transaction would result in or tend to create a monopoly or substantially lessen competition or otherwise function as a restraint of trade, unless the anti-competitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed by the public interest in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding companies and banks concerned and the convenience and needs of the community to be served. The Federal Reserve’s consideration of financial resources includes a focus on capital adequacy, which is discussed in the section titled “Bank Regulation and Supervision—Capital Adequacy.” The Federal Reserve also considers the effectiveness of the institutions in combating money laundering, including a review of the anti-money laundering program of the acquiring bank holding company and the anti-money laundering compliance records of a bank to be acquired as part of the transaction. Finally, the Federal Reserve takes into consideration the extent to which the proposed transaction would result in greater or more concentrated risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system.

Under the BHC Act, if well-capitalized and well-managed, we or any other bank holding company located in Tennessee may purchase a bank located outside of Tennessee without regard to whether such transaction is prohibited under state law. Conversely, a well-capitalized and well-managed bank holding company located outside of Tennessee may purchase a bank located inside Tennessee without regard to whether such transaction is prohibited under state law. In each case, however, restrictions may be placed under state law on the acquisition of a bank that has only been in existence for a limited amount of time or will result in concentrations of deposits exceeding limits specified by statute. For example, Tennessee law currently prohibits a bank holding company from acquiring control of a Tennessee-based financial institution until the target financial institution has been in operation for at least three years.

Change in Bank Control

Subject to various exceptions, the BHC Act and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with related regulations, require Federal Reserve approval prior to any person or company acquiring “control” of a bank holding company. Under a rebuttable presumption established by the Federal Reserve pursuant to the Change in Bank Control Act, the acquisition of 10% or more of a class of voting stock of a bank holding company would constitute acquisition of “control” of the bank holding company if no other person will own, control, or hold the power to vote a greater percentage of that class of voting stock immediately after the transaction or the bank holding company has registered securities under the Exchange Act. In addition, any person or group of persons acting in concert must obtain the approval of the Federal Reserve under the BHC Act before acquiring 25% (or 5% in the case of an acquirer that is already a bank holding company) or more of the outstanding voting stock of a bank holding company, the right to control in any manner the election of a majority of the company’s directors, or otherwise obtaining control or a “controlling influence” over the bank holding company.

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Permitted Activities

Under the BHC Act, a bank holding company is generally permitted to engage in or acquire direct or indirect control of the voting shares of any company engaged in the following activities:

 

banking or managing or controlling banks; and

 

any activity that the Federal Reserve determines to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident to the business of banking.

Activities that the Federal Reserve has found to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident to the business of banking include:

 

factoring accounts receivable;

 

making, acquiring, brokering or servicing loans and usual related activities in connection with the foregoing;

 

leasing personal or real property under certain conditions;

 

operating a non-bank depository institution, such as a savings association;

 

engaging in trust company functions in a manner authorized by state law;

 

financial and investment advisory activities;

 

discount securities brokerage activities;

 

underwriting and dealing in government obligations and money market instruments;

 

providing specified management consulting and counseling activities;

 

performing selected data processing services and support services;

 

acting as an agent or broker in selling credit life insurance and other types of insurance in connection with credit transactions; and

 

performing selected insurance underwriting activities.

The Federal Reserve may order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any of these activities or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when it has reasonable cause to believe that the bank holding company’s continued ownership, activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of it or any of its bank subsidiaries.

Support of Subsidiary Institutions

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act and Federal Reserve policy require a bank holding company to serve as a source of financial and managerial strength to its bank subsidiaries. As a result of a bank holding company’s source of strength obligation, a bank holding company may be required to provide funds to a bank subsidiary in the form of subordinate capital or other instruments which qualify as capital under bank regulatory rules. Any loans from the holding company to such subsidiary banks likely would be unsecured and subordinated to such bank’s depositors and perhaps to other creditors of the bank.

Repurchase or Redemption of Securities

A bank holding company is generally required to give the Federal Reserve prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its own then outstanding equity securities if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of the company’s consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may disapprove such a purchase or redemption if it determines that the proposal would constitute an unsafe and unsound practice, or would violate any law, regulation, Federal Reserve order or directive, or any condition imposed by, or written agreement with, the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve has adopted an exception to this approval requirement for well-capitalized bank holding companies that meet certain conditions.

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Bank Regulation and Supervision

Our bank is subject to extensive federal and state banking laws and regulations that impose restrictions on and provide for general regulatory oversight of the operations of our bank. These laws and regulations are generally intended to protect the safety and soundness of our bank and our bank’s depositors, rather than our shareholders. The following discussion describes the material elements of the regulatory framework that applies to our bank.

Since our bank is a commercial bank chartered under the laws of the state of Tennessee and is a member of the Federal Reserve System, it is primarily subject to the supervision, examination and reporting requirements of the Federal Reserve and the TDFI. The Federal Reserve and the TDFI regularly examine our bank’s operations and have the authority to approve or disapprove mergers, the establishment of branches and similar corporate actions. Both regulatory agencies have the power to take enforcement action to prevent the development or continuance of unsafe or unsound banking practices or other violations of law. Our bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC to the maximum extent provided by law. Our bank is also subject to numerous federal and state statutes and regulations that affect its business, activities and operations.

Branching

Under current Tennessee law, our bank may open branch offices throughout Tennessee with the prior approval of, or prior notice to, the TDFI and the Federal Reserve. In addition, with prior regulatory approval, our bank may acquire branches of existing banks located in Tennessee. Under federal law, our bank may establish branch offices with the prior approval of the Federal Reserve. While prior law imposed various limits on the ability of banks to establish new branches in states other than their home state, the Dodd-Frank Act allows a bank to branch into a new state by setting up a new branch if, under the laws of the state in which the branch is to be located, a state bank chartered by that state would be permitted to establish the branch. This makes it much simpler for banks to open de novo branches in other states.

FDIC Insurance and Other Assessments

The Bank pays deposit insurance assessments to the Deposit Insurance Fund, which is determined through a risk-based assessment system. The Bank’s deposit accounts are currently insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund, generally up to a maximum of $250,000 per separately insured depositor. The Bank pays assessments to the FDIC for such deposit insurance. Under the current assessment system, the FDIC assigns an institution to a risk category based on the institution’s most recent supervisory and capital evaluations, which are designed to measure risk. Under the FDIA, the FDIC may terminate a bank’s deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order, agreement or condition imposed by the FDIC.

In addition, all FDIC-insured institutions are required to pay assessments to the FDIC to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation, or FICO, a federal government corporation established to recapitalize the predecessor to the Savings Association Insurance Fund. FICO assessments are set quarterly and the assessment rate was 0.560 (annual) basis points in the first quarter of 2017 and 0.540 basis points during the second, third and fourth quarters of 2017.  These assessments will continue until the FICO bonds mature in 2018 through 2019.

Community Reinvestment Act

The Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) requires that, in connection with examinations of financial institutions within their respective jurisdictions, the federal banking agencies will evaluate the record of each financial institution in meeting the needs of its local community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Our bank’s record of performance under the CRA is publicly available. A bank’s CRA performance is also considered in evaluating applications seeking approval for mergers, acquisitions, and new offices or facilities. Failure to adequately meet these criteria could result in additional requirements and limitations being imposed on the bank. Additionally, we must publicly disclose the terms of certain CRA-related agreements. At December 31, 2017 the Bank had a CRA rating of “Satisfactory.”

Interest Rate Limitations

Interest and other charges collected or contracted for by our bank are subject to applicable state usury laws and federal laws concerning interest rates.

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Federal Laws Applicable to Consumer Credit and Deposit Transactions

Our bank’s loan and deposit operations are subject to a number of federal consumer protection laws, including:

 

the Federal Truth in Lending Act, governing disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;

 

the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, requiring financial institutions to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether a financial institution is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the communities it serves;

 

the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status or certain other prohibited factors in all aspects of credit transactions;

 

the Fair Credit Reporting Act, or FCRA, governing the use and provision of information to credit reporting agencies;

 

the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, governing the manner in which consumer debts may be collected by debt collectors;

 

the Service Members Civil Relief Act, governing the repayment terms of, and property rights underlying, secured obligations of persons in military service;

 

the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, governing the disclosure and safeguarding of sensitive non-public personal information of our clients;

 

the Right to Financial Privacy Act, imposing a duty to maintain confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribes procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records;

 

the Electronic Funds Transfer Act governing automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and clients’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of automated teller machines and other electronic banking services; and

 

the rules and regulations of the CFPB and various federal agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing these federal laws.

Capital Adequacy

In July 2013, the federal banking regulators, in response to the statutory requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act, adopted regulations implementing the Basel Capital Adequacy Accord, or Basel III, which had been approved by the Basel member central bank governors in 2010 as an agreement among the countries’ central banks and bank regulators on the amount of capital banks and their holding companies must maintain as a cushion against losses and insolvency. The U.S. Basel III rule’s minimum capital to risk-weighted assets, or RWA, requirements are a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.0%, and a total capital ratio of 8.0%. The minimum leverage ratio (Tier 1 capital to total assets) is 4.0%. The rule also changes the definition of capital, mainly by adopting stricter eligibility criteria for regulatory capital instruments, and new constraints on the inclusion of minority interests, mortgage-servicing assets, deferred tax assets, and certain investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions. In addition, the U.S. Basel III rule requires that most regulatory capital deductions be made from common equity Tier 1 capital.

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Under the U.S. Basel III rule, in order to avoid limitations on capital distributions, including dividend payments and certain discretionary bonus payments to executive officers, a banking organization must maintain a capital conservation buffer composed of common equity Tier 1 capital above its minimum risk-based capital requirements. The buffer is measured relative to RWA. Phase-in of the capital conservation buffer requirements began on January 1, 2016, and the requirements will be fully phased in on January 1, 2019. A banking organization with a buffer greater than 2.5% once the capital conservation buffer is fully phased in would not be subject to limits on capital distributions or discretionary bonus payments; however, a banking organization with a buffer of less than 2.5% would be subject to increasingly stringent limitations as the buffer approaches zero. A banking organization also would be prohibited from making distributions or discretionary bonus payments during any quarter if its eligible retained income is negative in that quarter and its capital conservation buffer ratio was less than 2.5% at the beginning of the quarter. Effectively, the Basel III framework will require us to meet minimum risk-based capital ratios of (i) 7% for common equity Tier 1 capital, (ii) 8.5% Tier 1 capital, and (iii) 10.5% total capital, once it is fully phased in. The eligible retained income of a banking organization is defined as its net income for the four calendar quarters preceding the current calendar quarter, based on the organization’s quarterly regulatory reports, net of any distributions and associated tax effects not already reflected in net income. When the rule is fully phased in, the minimum capital requirements plus the capital conservation buffer will exceed the prompt corrective action, or PCA, well-capitalized thresholds.

Generally, banking organizations of our size became subject to the U.S. Basel III rule on January 1, 2015, while the capital conservation buffer and the deductions from common equity Tier 1 capital will phase in over time. Failure to meet statutorily mandated capital guidelines or more restrictive ratios separately established for a banking institution could subject the institution to a variety of enforcement remedies available to federal regulatory authorities, including issuance of a capital directive, the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, a prohibition on accepting or renewing brokered deposits, limitations on the rates of interest that the institution may pay on its deposits, and other restrictions on its business.

Prompt Corrective Action

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”) establishes a system of “prompt corrective action” (“PCA”) to resolve the problems of undercapitalized insured depository institutions. Under this system, the federal banking regulators have established five capital categories (well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized) into which all insured depository institutions are placed. The federal banking agencies have specified by regulation the relevant capital thresholds and other qualitative requirements for each of those categories. For an insured depository institution to be “well capitalized” under the PCA framework, it must have a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of 6.5%, Tier 1 capital ratio of 8.0%, a total capital ratio of 10.0%, and a leverage ratio of 5.0%, and must not be subject to any written agreement, order or capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive issued by its primary federal regulator to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. At December 31, 2017, our bank qualified for the well capitalized category.

Federal banking regulators are required to take various mandatory supervisory actions and are authorized to take other discretionary actions with respect to institutions in the three undercapitalized categories. The severity of the action depends upon the capital category in which the institution is placed. For example, institutions in all three undercapitalized categories are automatically restricted from paying distributions and management fees, whereas only an institution that is significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized is restricted in its compensation paid to senior executive officers. Generally, subject to a narrow exception, the banking regulator must appoint a receiver or conservator for an institution that is critically undercapitalized.

An institution that is categorized as undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, or critically undercapitalized is required to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan to its appropriate federal banking agency. A bank holding company must guarantee that a subsidiary depository institution meets its capital restoration plan, subject to various limitations. The controlling holding company’s obligation to fund a capital restoration plan is limited to the lesser of (i) 5% of an undercapitalized subsidiary’s assets at the time it became undercapitalized and (ii) the amount required to meet regulatory capital requirements. An undercapitalized institution is also generally prohibited from increasing its average total assets, making acquisitions, establishing any branches or engaging in any new line of business, except under an accepted capital restoration plan or with Federal Reserve approval.

The regulations also establish procedures for downgrading an institution to a lower capital category based on supervisory factors other than capital.

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Liquidity

Financial institutions are subject to significant regulatory scrutiny regarding their liquidity positions. This scrutiny has increased during recent years, as the economic downturn that began in the late 2000s negatively affected the liquidity of many financial institutions. Various bank regulatory publications, including Federal Reserve SR 10-6 (Funding and Liquidity Risk Management) and FDIC Financial Institution Letter FIL-84-2008 (Liquidity Risk Management), address the identification, measurement, monitoring and control of funding and liquidity risk by financial institutions.

Any increased liquidity requirements applied to us or our bank generally would be expected to cause us or our bank to invest assets more conservatively—and therefore at lower yields—than we and our bank otherwise might invest. Such lower-yield investments likely would reduce our revenue stream, and in turn our earnings potential.

Payment of Dividends

We are a legal entity separate and distinct from our bank. Our principal source of cash flow, including cash flow to pay dividends to our shareholders, is dividends our bank pays to us as our bank’s sole shareholder. Statutory and regulatory limitations apply to our bank’s payment of dividends to us as well as to our payment of dividends to our shareholders. The requirement that a bank holding company must serve as a source of strength to its subsidiary banks also results in the position of the Federal Reserve that a bank holding company should not maintain a level of cash dividends to its shareholders that places undue pressure on the capital of its bank subsidiaries or that can be funded only through additional borrowings or other arrangements that may undermine the bank holding company’s ability to serve as such a source of strength. Our ability to pay dividends is also subject to the provisions of Tennessee corporate law which prevents payment of dividends if, after giving effect to such payment, we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities plus any amounts needed to satisfy any preferential rights if we were dissolving. In addition, in deciding whether or not to declare a dividend of any particular size, our board of directors must consider our and our bank’s current and prospective capital, liquidity, and other needs.

The TDFI also regulates our bank’s dividend payments. Under Tennessee law, a state-chartered bank may not pay a dividend without prior approval of the Commissioner of the TDFI if the total of all dividends declared by its board of directors in any calendar year will exceed (i) the total of its retained net income for that year, plus (ii) its retained net income for the preceding two years.

Our bank’s payment of dividends may also be affected or limited by other factors, such as the requirement to maintain adequate capital above regulatory guidelines. The federal banking agencies have indicated that paying dividends that deplete a depository institution’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. Under FDICIA, a depository institution may not pay any dividends if payment would cause it to become undercapitalized or if it already is undercapitalized. Moreover, the federal agencies have issued policy statements providing that bank holding companies and insured banks should generally only pay dividends out of current operating earnings.

Restrictions on Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders

Our bank is subject to Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act, which places limits on the amount of the bank’s transactions with its affiliates.

Subject to various exceptions, the total amount of the bank’s transactions with affiliates is limited in amount, as to any one affiliate, to 10% of a bank’s capital and surplus and, as to all affiliates combined, to 20% of a bank’s capital and surplus. In addition to the limitation on the amount of these transactions, transactions with affiliates also must meet specified collateral requirements and safety and soundness requirements. Our bank must also comply with provisions prohibiting the acquisition of low-quality assets from an affiliate.

Our bank is also subject to Section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, which, among other things, prohibits a bank from engaging in transactions with affiliates, as well as other types of transactions set forth in Section 23B, unless the transactions are on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with nonaffiliated companies.

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Our bank is also subject to restrictions on extensions of credit to its executive officers, directors, principal shareholders and their related interests. These extensions of credit (i) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions between the bank and third parties, and (ii) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. There are also individual and aggregate limitations on loans to insiders and their related interests. The aggregate amount of insider loans generally cannot exceed the institution’s total unimpaired capital and surplus. Insiders and banks are subject to enforcement actions for knowingly entering into insider loans in violation of applicable restrictions.

Single Borrower Credit Limits

Under Tennessee law, total loans and extensions of credit to a borrower may not exceed 15% of our bank’s capital, surplus and undivided profits. However, such loans may be in excess of that percentage, but not above 25%, if each loan in excess of 15% is first submitted to and approved in advance in writing by the board of directors and a record is kept of such written approval and reported to the board of directors quarterly.

Commercial Real Estate Concentration Limits

In December 2006, the federal banking regulators issued guidance entitled “Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices” to address increased concentrations in commercial real estate, or CRE, loans. In addition, in December 2015, the federal bank agencies issued additional guidance entitled “Statement on Prudent Risk Management for Commercial Real Estate Lending.” Together, these guidelines describe the criteria the agencies will use as indicators to identify institutions potentially exposed to CRE concentration risk. An institution that has (i) experienced rapid growth in CRE lending, (ii) notable exposure to a specific type of CRE, (iii) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land representing 100% or more of the institution’s capital, or (iv) total CRE loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s capital, and the outstanding balance of the institutions CRE portfolio has increased by 50% or more in the prior 36 months, may be identified for further supervisory analysis of the level and nature of its CRE concentration risk. As of December 31, 2017, our bank’s total CRE loans represented 245% of its capital, thus falling beneath the 300% target.

Privacy

Financial institutions are required to disclose their policies for collecting and protecting non-public personal information of their clients. Clients generally may prevent financial institutions from sharing non-public personal information with nonaffiliated third parties except under certain circumstances, such as the processing of transactions requested by the consumer or when the financial institution is jointly offering a product or service with a nonaffiliated financial institution. Additionally, financial institutions generally are prohibited from disclosing consumer account numbers to any nonaffiliated third party for use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing or other marketing to consumers.

Consumer Credit Reporting

The Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”) imposes, among other things:

 

requirements for financial institutions to develop policies and procedures to identify potential identity theft and, upon the request of a consumer, to place a fraud alert in the consumer’s credit file stating that the consumer may be the victim of identity theft or other fraud;

 

requirements for entities that furnish information to consumer reporting agencies to implement procedures and policies regarding the accuracy and integrity of the furnished information and regarding the correction of previously furnished information that is later determined to be inaccurate;

 

requirements for mortgage lenders to disclose credit scores to consumers in certain circumstances; and

 

limitations on the ability of a business that receives consumer information from an affiliate to use that information for marketing purposes.

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Anti-Terrorism and Money Laundering Legislation

Our bank is subject to the Bank Secrecy Act and USA Patriot Act. These statutes and related rules and regulations impose requirements and limitations on specified financial transactions and accounts and other relationships intended to guard against money laundering and terrorism financing. Our bank has established an anti-money laundering program pursuant to the Bank Secrecy Act and customer identification program pursuant to the USA Patriot Act. The bank also maintains records of cash purchases of negotiable instruments, files reports of certain cash transactions exceeding $10,000 (daily aggregate amount), and reports suspicious activity that might signify money laundering, tax evasion, or other criminal activities pursuant to the Bank Secrecy Act. Our bank otherwise has implemented policies and procedures to comply with the foregoing requirements.

Overdraft Fees

Federal Reserve Regulation E restricts banks’ abilities to charge overdraft fees. The rule prohibits financial institutions from charging fees for paying overdrafts on ATM and one-time debit card transactions, unless a consumer consents, or opts in, to the overdraft service for those types of transactions.

The Dodd-Frank Act

As final rules and regulations implementing the Dodd-Frank Act have been adopted, this new law has significantly changed and is significantly changing the bank regulatory framework and affected the lending, deposit, investment, trading and operating activities of banks and their holding companies. The Dodd-Frank Act requires various federal agencies to adopt a broad range of new implementing rules and regulations and to prepare numerous studies and reports for Congress. The federal agencies are given significant discretion in drafting the implementing rules and regulations, and consequently, many of the details and much of the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act will depend on the rules and regulations that implement it.

A number of the effects of the Dodd-Frank Act are described or otherwise accounted for in various parts of this “Supervision and Regulation” section. The following items provide a brief description of certain other provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that may be relevant to us and our bank.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB with broad powers to supervise and enforce consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB has broad rule-making authority for a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all banks, including the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices. The Bureau has examination and enforcement authority with respect to enumerated consumer financial protection laws over all banks with more than $10 billion in assets. Institutions with less than $10 billion in assets will continue to be examined for compliance with consumer financial protection laws by their primary bank regulator.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act imposed new requirements regarding the origination and servicing of residential mortgage loans. The law created a variety of new consumer protections, including limitations, subject to exceptions, on the manner by which loan originators may be compensated and an obligation on the part of lenders to verify a borrower’s “ability to repay” a residential mortgage loan. Final rules implementing these latter statutory requirements became effective in 2014.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act eliminated the federal prohibitions on paying interest on demand deposits effective one year after the date of its enactment, thus allowing businesses to have interest-bearing checking accounts. Depending on competitive responses, this significant change to existing law could have an adverse impact on our interest expense.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act addresses many investor protection, corporate governance and executive compensation matters that will affect most U.S. publicly traded companies. The Dodd-Frank Act (i) requires publicly traded companies to give shareholders a non-binding vote on executive compensation and golden parachute payments; (ii) enhances independence requirements for compensation committee members; (iii) requires national securities exchanges to require listed companies to adopt incentive-based compensation clawback policies for executive officers; (iv) authorizes the SEC to promulgate rules that would allow shareholders to nominate their own candidates using a company’s proxy materials; and (v) directs the federal banking regulators to issue rules prohibiting incentive compensation that encourages inappropriate risks.

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As noted above, many aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act are subject to rulemaking and will take effect over several years, making it difficult to anticipate the overall financial impact on us. However, we expect compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations will result in additional operating and compliance costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, on February 3, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order calling for his administration to review existing U.S. financial laws and regulations, including the Dodd-Frank Act. At this time, it is unclear if this executive order will result in any material changes to current laws and regulations applicable to us.

The Volcker Rule

On December 10, 2013, five U.S. financial regulators, including the Federal Reserve, adopted a final rule implementing the “Volcker Rule.” The Volcker Rule was created by Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act and prohibits “banking entities” from engaging in “proprietary trading.” Banking entities also are prohibited from sponsoring or investing in private equity or hedge funds, or extending credit to or engaging in other covered transactions with affiliated private equity or hedge funds. The fundamental prohibitions of the Volcker Rule generally apply to banking entities of any size, including us, the bank and any other “affiliate” under the BHC Act.

Limitations on Incentive Compensation

In April 2016, the Federal Reserve and other federal financial agencies re-proposed restrictions on incentive-based compensation pursuant to Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act for financial institutions with $1 billion or more in total consolidated assets. For institutions with at least $1 billion but less than $50 billion in total consolidated assets, such as the Company and our bank, the proposal would impose principles-based restrictions that are broadly consistent with existing interagency guidance on incentive-based compensation. Such institutions would be prohibited from entering into incentive compensation arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by the institution (1) by providing an executive officer, employee, director, or principal shareholder with excessive compensation, fees, or benefits, or (2) that could lead to material financial loss to the institution. The proposal would also impose certain governance and recordkeeping requirements on institutions of the Company’s and our bank’s size. The Federal Reserve would reserve the authority to impose more stringent requirements on institutions of the Company’s and our bank’s size. We are evaluating the expected impact of the proposal on our business.

U.S. Tax Reform

On December 22, 2017, Public Law 115-97, informally referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Reform Act”) was enacted into law. The Tax Reform Act provides for significant changes to the U.S. tax code that impact businesses. Effective January 1, 2018, the Tax Reform Act reduces the U.S. federal tax rate for corporations from 35% to 21% for U.S. taxable income and requires a one-time remeasurement of deferred taxes to reflect their value at a lower tax rate of 21%. The Tax Reform Act includes other changes, including, but not limited to, a limitation of the deduction for net operating losses, elimination of net operating loss carrybacks, immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, additional limitations on the deductibility of executive compensation and limitations on the deductibility of interest. As a result of the Tax Reform Act, we recorded a $3.56 million increase in income tax expense for 2017. The effects of the Tax Reform Act on the Company are still being evaluated.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

We file reports with the SEC including Annual Reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and proxy statements, as well as any amendments to those reports. The public may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are also accessible at no cost on our website at http://www.ir.capstarbank.com after they are electronically filed with the SEC. Reference to our website does not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained on the website and should not be considered part of this Report.

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ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS

We are subject to numerous risks, and the material risks that management believe affect our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations are described below. Many of these risks are beyond our control, though efforts are made to manage those risks while optimizing financial and operational results.  You should carefully read and consider the following risks factors.  The occurrence of any of the following risks, as well as risks of which we are currently unaware or currently deem immaterial, could materially and adversely affect our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.  As a result, the trading price of shares of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment.  In addition, the following risks and other information in this Report or incorporated into this Report by reference, including our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” should be carefully considered before investing in shares of our common stock.

Some statements in the following risk factors constitute forward-looking statements. Please refer to the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Report.

Risks Related To Our Business

As a business operating in the financial services industry, our business and operations may be adversely affected in numerous and complex ways by weak economic conditions.

Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to clients in the form of loans, borrowing money from clients in the form of deposits and investing in securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the United States. If the U.S. economy weakens, our growth and profitability from our lending, deposit and investment operations could be constrained. Uncertainty about the federal fiscal policymaking process, the medium- and long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government, and future tax rates is a concern for businesses, consumers and investors in the United States.

Weak economic conditions are characterized by numerous factors, including deflation, fluctuations in debt and equity capital markets, a lack of liquidity and/or depressed prices in the secondary market for mortgage loans, increased delinquencies on mortgage, consumer and commercial loans, residential and commercial real estate price declines and lower home sales and commercial activity. The current economic environment is also characterized by interest rates at near historically low levels, which impacts our ability to attract deposits and to generate attractive earnings through our loan and investment portfolios. All of these factors can individually or in the aggregate be detrimental to our business, and the interplay between these factors can be complex and unpredictable. Adverse economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Our business and operations are concentrated in state of Tennessee generally and the Nashville MSA more specifically, and we are more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy.

Unlike with many of our larger competitors that maintain significant operations located outside our market area, substantially all of our clients are individuals and businesses located and doing business in the Nashville MSA. As of December 31, 2017, approximately 85% of the loans in our loan portfolio (measured by dollar amount) were made to borrowers who live or conduct business in the Nashville MSA. Therefore, our success will depend upon the general economic conditions in this area, which we cannot predict with certainty. As a result, our operations and profitability may be more adversely affected by a local economic downturn in the Nashville MSA than those of larger, more geographically diverse competitors. For example, the Nashville economy is particularly sensitive to changes in the healthcare service, music and entertainment and hospitality and tourism industries, among others. A downturn in these industries or in the local economy generally could make it more difficult for our borrowers to repay their loans and may lead to loan losses that are not offset by operations in other markets; it may also reduce the ability of depositors to make or maintain deposits with us. For these reasons, any regional or local economic downturn that affects the state of Tennessee generally and the Nashville MSA specifically, or existing or prospective borrowers or depositors in the Nashville MSA could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

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From time to time, our bank may provide financing to clients who or that have companies or properties located outside the Nashville MSA or the state of Tennessee. In such cases, we would face similar local market risk in those communities for these clients.

Competition from financial institutions and other financial service providers may adversely affect our profitability.

The banking business is highly competitive, and we experience competition in our market from many other financial institutions. We compete with commercial banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, mortgage banking firms, consumer finance companies, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market funds, and other mutual funds, as well as other community banks and super-regional and national financial institutions that operate offices in our service area. These competitors often have far greater resources than we do and are able to conduct more intensive and broader-based promotional efforts to reach both commercial and individual clients.

We compete with these other financial institutions both in attracting deposits and in making loans. In addition, we must attract our client base from other existing financial institutions and from new residents. We expect competition to increase in the future as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and the continuing trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. Our profitability depends upon our continued ability to successfully compete with an array of financial institutions in our service area.

Our ability to compete successfully will depend on a number of factors, including, among other things:

 

our ability to recruit and retain experienced and talented bankers at competitive compensation levels;

 

our ability to build and maintain long-term client relationships while ensuring high ethical standards and safe and sound banking practices;

 

the scope, relevance and pricing of products and services that we offer;

 

client satisfaction with our products and services;

 

industry and general economic trends; and

 

our ability to keep pace with technological advances and to invest in new technology.

Increased competition could require us to increase the rates that we pay on deposits or lower the rates that we offer on loans, which could reduce our profitability. We derive a substantial majority of our business from the Nashville MSA. Our failure to compete effectively in our market could restrain our growth or cause us to lose market share, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We are dependent on the services of our management team and board of directors, and the unexpected loss of key personnel or directors may adversely affect our business and operations.

We are led by an experienced core management team with substantial experience in the markets that we serve, and our operating strategy focuses on providing products and services through long-term relationship managers and ensuring that our largest clients have relationships with our senior management team. Accordingly, our success depends in large part on the performance of these key personnel, as well as on our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified senior and middle management. Competition for employees is intense, and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business plan may be lengthy. If any of our executive officers, other key personnel, or directors leaves us or our bank, our operations may be adversely affected. While we have employment agreements containing non-competition provisions with many of our key personnel, if any of such personnel leaves his or her position for any reason, our financial condition and results of operations may suffer because of his or her skills, knowledge of our market, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified personnel to replace him or her. Additionally, our directors’ community involvement and diverse and extensive local business relationships are important to our success.

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Our business strategy includes the continuation of our growth plans, and we could be negatively affected if we fail to grow or fail to manage our growth effectively.

We intend to continue pursuing our growth strategy for our business through organic growth of our loan and deposit portfolio as well as through strategic acquisitions. Our prospects must be considered in light of the risks, expenses and difficulties that can be encountered by financial service companies in rapid growth stages, which include the risks associated with the following:

 

maintaining loan quality;

 

maintaining adequate management personnel and information systems to oversee such growth;

 

maintaining adequate control and compliance functions;

 

obtaining regulatory approvals with respect to acquisitions;

 

entry into new markets, industries, and product areas; and

 

securing capital and liquidity needed to support anticipated growth.

We may not be able to expand our presence in our existing market or new markets. Our ability to grow successfully will depend on a variety of factors, including the continued availability of desirable business opportunities, the competitive responses from other financial institutions in our market areas and our ability to manage our growth. Failure to manage our growth effectively could adversely affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategy, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

As a bank that focuses on building comprehensive banking relationships with clients, our reputation is critical to our business, and damage to it could have a material adverse effect on us.

A key differentiating factor for our business is the strong brand we are building in the Nashville MSA market. Through our branding, we communicate to the market about our company and our service offerings. Maintaining a positive reputation is critical to our attracting and retaining clients and employees. Adverse perceptions of us could make it more difficult for us to execute on our strategy. Harm to our reputation can arise from many sources, including actual or perceived employee misconduct, misconduct by our outsourced service providers or other counterparties, litigation or regulatory actions, our failure to meet our standards of service and quality and compliance failures. Negative publicity regarding us or our bank, whether or not accurate, may damage our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We target small and medium sized businesses as loan clients, who may have greater credit risk than larger borrowers.

We target small and medium sized businesses as loan clients. Because of their size, these borrowers may be less able to withstand competitive, economic or financial pressures than larger borrowers in periods of economic weakness. If loan losses occur at a level where the allowance for loan losses is not sufficient to cover actual loan losses, our earnings will decrease.

Our concentration of large loans to a limited number of borrowers may increase our credit risk.

Our growth over the last several years has been partially attributable to our ability to originate and retain large loans. In addition to regulatory limits to which our bank is subject, we have established an internal policy limiting loans to one borrower, principal or guarantor based on “total exposure,” which represents the aggregate exposure of economically related borrowers for approval purposes; loans in excess of our internal limit require acknowledgment by our bank’s full board of directors. Many of these loans have been made to a small number of borrowers, resulting in a concentration of large loans to certain borrowers. As of December 31, 2017, our 25 largest borrowing relationships accounted for approximately 23% of our total loan portfolio. Along with other risks inherent in these loans, such as the deterioration of the underlying businesses or property securing these loans, this high concentration of borrowers presents a risk to our lending operations. If any one of these borrowers becomes unable to repay its loan obligations as a result of economic or market conditions, or personal circumstances, such as divorce or death, our non-accrual loans and our allowance for loan losses could increase significantly, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

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Lack of seasoning of our loan portfolio could increase risk of credit defaults in the future.

As a result of our growth over the past several years, as of December 31, 2017, approximately 58% of our loan portfolio had been originated since December 31, 2015, including new originations and renewals. In general, loans do not begin to show signs of credit deterioration or default until they have been outstanding for some period of time, a process referred to as “seasoning.” As a result, a portfolio of older loans will usually behave more predictably than a newer portfolio. Because a large portion of our portfolio is relatively new, the current level of delinquencies and defaults may not represent the level of delinquencies and defaults that could occur as the portfolio becomes more seasoned and may not serve as a reliable basis for predicting the health and nature of our loan portfolio. Our limited experience with these loans does not provide us with a significant payment history pattern with which to judge future collectability. As a result, it may be difficult to predict the future performance of our loan portfolio. If delinquencies and defaults increase, we may be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We may not be able to adequately assess and limit our credit risk, which could adversely affect our profitability.

A primary component of our business involves making loans to clients. The business of lending is inherently risky because the principal of or interest on the loan may not be repaid timely or at all or the value of any collateral supporting the loan may be insufficient to cover our outstanding exposure. These risks may be affected by the strength of the borrower’s business sector and local, regional and national market and economic conditions. Our risk management practices, such as monitoring our loan applicants and the concentration of our loans within specific lines of business and our credit approval practices, may not adequately assess credit risk, and our credit administration personnel, policies and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting clients and the quality of the loan portfolio. A failure to effectively assess and limit the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Repayment of our leveraged loans is often dependent on the cash flows of the borrower, which may be unpredictable, and the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value.

Our leveraged loans are primarily commercial in nature and often contained within our healthcare portfolio.  Frequently, these loans have a secondary source of repayment that is directly correlated with the primary source of repayment. Leveraged borrowers may have a diminished ability to adjust to unexpected events and changes in business conditions because of a higher ratio of liabilities to capital, and in some cases, reliance is placed on enterprise value as a secondary source of repayment. The repayment of leveraged loans depends primarily on the cash flow and credit worthiness of the borrower and on enterprise value as a secondary source of repayment.

Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses inherent in our loan portfolio.

We maintain an allowance for loan losses that represents management’s best estimate of the loan losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. The level of the allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of concentrations within our lines of business, specific credit risks, loan loss experience, current loan portfolio quality, present economic, political and regulatory conditions and unidentified losses inherent in the current loan portfolio. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses is highly subjective and requires us to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Inaccurate management assumptions, continuing deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses. In addition, our regulators, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review our loan portfolio and the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses and may require adjustments based upon judgments that are different than those of management. Further, if actual charge-offs in future periods exceed the amounts allocated to the allowance for loan losses, we may need to increase our provision for loan losses to restore the adequacy of our allowance for such losses. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for loan losses for any reason, our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

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The healthcare service industry is an integral component of the local economy, and adverse trends in the healthcare service industry could have a material adverse effect on us.

The healthcare service industry is an integral segment of the local economy.  As of December 31, 2017, approximately 17% of our loan portfolio was composed of loans to borrowers in the healthcare service industry. Adverse trends in the healthcare service industry may have a negative impact on a significant portion of the Company’s borrowers and clients. The healthcare service industry may be affected by the following:

 

trends in the method of delivery of healthcare services;

 

competition among healthcare providers;

 

consolidation of large health insurers;

 

lower reimbursement rates from government and commercial payors, high uncompensated care expense, investment losses and limited admissions growth pressuring operating profit margins for healthcare providers;

 

availability of capital;

 

credit downgrades;

 

liability insurance expense;

 

regulatory and government reimbursement uncertainty resulting from changes to laws governing the delivery of healthcare services and reimbursement of providers of healthcare services;

 

congressional efforts to repeal and federal court cases challenging the legality of certain aspects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Healthcare and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010;

 

health reform initiatives to address healthcare costs through expanded value-based purchasing programs, bundled provider payments, health insurance exchanges, increased patient cost-sharing, geographic payment variations, comparative effectiveness research, lower payments for hospital readmissions, and shared risk-and-reward payment models such as accountable care organizations;

 

federal and state government plans to reduce budget deficits and address debt ceiling limits by lowering healthcare provider Medicare and Medicaid payment rates, while requiring increased patient access to care;

 

equalizing Medicare payment rates across different facility-type settings;

 

heightened health information technology security standards and the meaningful use of electronic health records by healthcare providers; and

 

potential tax law changes affecting healthcare providers.

These changes, among others, could adversely affect the economic performance of some or all of our borrowers and clients in the healthcare services industry and, in turn, have a materially negative impact on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Our commercial real estate loan portfolio exposes us to credit risks that may be greater than the risks related to other types of loans.

Our loan portfolio includes non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans, or CRE loans, to individuals and businesses for various purposes, which are secured by commercial properties, as well as construction and land development loans. CRE loans typically involve repayment dependent upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service. The availability of such income for repayment may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. These loans expose us to greater credit risk than loans secured by other types of collateral because the collateral securing these loans is typically more difficult to liquidate. Additionally, non-owner-occupied CRE loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our non-owner-occupied CRE loan portfolio could require us to increase our allowance for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability and could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

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A prolonged downturn in the real estate market could result in losses and adversely affect our profitability.

As of December 31, 2017, approximately 37% of our loan portfolio was composed of commercial real estate loans, 11% consumer real estate loans, and 9% construction and land development loans. The real estate collateral in each case provides an alternate source of repayment in the event of default by the borrower and may deteriorate in value during the time the credit is extended. A decline in real estate values could further impair the value of our collateral and our ability to sell the collateral upon any foreclosure, which would likely require us to increase our allowance for loan losses. In the event of a default with respect to any of these loans, the amounts we receive upon sale of the collateral may be insufficient to recover the outstanding principal and interest on the loan. If we are required to re-value the collateral securing a loan to satisfy the debt during a period of reduced real estate values or to increase our allowance for loan losses, our profitability could be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Regulatory requirements affecting our loans secured by commercial real estate could limit our ability to leverage our capital and adversely affect our growth and profitability.

The federal bank regulatory agencies have indicated their view that banks with high concentrations of loans secured by commercial real estate are subject to increased risk and should implement robust risk management policies and maintain higher capital than regulatory minimums to maintain an appropriate cushion against loss that is commensurate with the perceived risk. Federal bank regulatory guidelines identify institutions potentially exposed to CRE concentration risk as those that have (i) experienced rapid growth in CRE lending, (ii) notable exposure to a specific type of CRE, (iii) total reported loans for construction, land development and other land loans representing 100% or more of the institution’s capital, or (iv) total CRE loans representing 300% or more of the institution’s capital if the outstanding balance of the institution’s CRE loan portfolio has increased 50% or more during the prior 36 months. Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio is dependent on commercial real estate, a change in the regulatory capital requirements applicable to us or a decline in our regulatory capital could limit our ability to leverage our capital as a result of these policies, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We engage in lending secured by real estate and may be forced to foreclose on the collateral and own the underlying real estate, subjecting us to the costs and potential risks associated with the ownership of the real property.

Since we originate loans secured by real estate, we may have to foreclose on the collateral property to protect our investment and may thereafter own and operate such property, in which case we would be exposed to the risks inherent in the ownership of real estate. As of December 31, 2017, we did not have any other real estate owned. The amount that we, as a mortgagee, may realize after a default is dependent upon factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to:

 

general or local economic conditions;

 

environmental cleanup liability;

 

neighborhood assessments;

 

interest rates;

 

real estate tax rates;

 

operating expenses of the mortgaged properties;

 

supply of and demand for rental units or properties;

 

ability to obtain and maintain adequate occupancy of the properties;

 

zoning laws;

 

governmental and regulatory rules;

 

fiscal policies; and

 

natural disasters.

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Our inability to manage the amount of costs or size of the risks associated with the ownership of real estate, or write-downs in the value of other real estate owned, could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We have several large depositor relationships, the loss of which could force us to fund our business through more expensive and less stable sources.

As of December 31, 2017, our ten largest non-brokered depositors accounted for approximately 20% of our total deposits. Withdrawals of deposits by any one of our largest depositors could force us to rely more heavily on borrowings and other sources of funding for our business and withdrawal demands, adversely affecting our net interest margin and results of operations. We may also be forced, as a result of any withdrawal of deposits, to rely more heavily on other, potentially more expensive and less stable funding sources. Consequently, the occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Correspondent banking introduces unique risks, which could affect our liquidity.

Although correspondent banking provides diversification of our funding base, it introduces a unique set of risks. Increases in the federal funds rate could create liquidity issues within the bank as it competes with the interest on reserves rate paid by the Federal Reserve Bank. Additionally, strong industry-wide loan demand could also create liquidity issues as excess balances held at CapStar Bank by our correspondent banks would presumably be redeployed by those banks into new loans. Further, capital inadequacy or asset quality issues at other institutions could result in increased risk to us due to the potential for large deposit withdrawals. If any of the foregoing were to occur, our liquidity could be materially and adversely affected.

Liquidity risk could impair our ability to fund operations and meet our obligations as they become due, and our funding sources may be insufficient to fund our future growth.

Liquidity is essential to our business. Liquidity risk is the potential that we will be unable to meet our obligations as they come due because of an inability to liquidate assets or obtain adequate funding. An inability to raise funds, at competitive rates or at all, through deposits, borrowings, the sale of loans and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. In particular, approximately 82% of our bank’s deposits as of December 31, 2017 were checking accounts and other liquid deposits, which are payable on demand or upon several days’ notice, while by comparison, 70% of the assets of our bank were loans at December 31, 2017, which cannot be called or sold in the same time frame. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities or on terms that are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry or economy in general.

Factors that could negatively impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease of our business activity as a result of a downturn in the markets in which our loans are concentrated, adverse regulatory action against us, or our inability to attract and retain deposits. Market conditions or other events could also negatively affect the level or cost of funding, affecting our ongoing ability to accommodate liability maturities and deposit withdrawals, meet contractual obligations and fund asset growth and new business transactions at a reasonable cost, in a timely manner and without adverse consequences. For example, we rely on deposits, federal funds purchased and advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Cincinnati (“FHLB”) to fund our operations. Although we have historically been able to replace maturing deposits and advances if desired, we may not be able to replace such funds in the future if, among other things, our financial condition, the financial condition of the FHLB or market conditions were to change. In such a circumstance, we may seek additional borrowings to achieve our long-term business objectives; however, they may not be available to us on favorable terms or at all.

Additionally, whole loan sale agreements may require us to repurchase or substitute mortgage loans, or indemnify buyers against losses, in the event we breach representations or warranties to purchasers, guarantors and insurers, including government-sponsored entities, about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated. In addition, we may be required to repurchase mortgage loans as a result of early payment default of the borrower on a mortgage loan. If repurchase and indemnity demands increase and such demands are valid claims and are in excess of our provision for potential losses, our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

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Any substantial, unexpected or prolonged change in the level or cost of liquidity could have a material adverse effect on our ability to meet deposit withdrawals and other client needs, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We are subject to interest rate risk, which could adversely affect our profits, and we do not have a history of operating in a rising interest rate environment.

Our profits, like that of most financial institutions, depends to a large extent on our net interest income, which is the difference between our interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and our interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. We have positioned our asset portfolio to benefit in a higher interest rate environment, but this may not remain true in the future. We have managed the growth of our bank since inception in an economic environment characterized by historically low interest rates. Our ability to continue that performance in a rising rate environment is not a certainty. Our interest sensitivity profile was asset sensitive as of December 31, 2017, meaning that our net interest income would increase more from rising interest rates than from falling interest rates. However, because we do not have a history of operating in a rising interest rate environment, we have no historical data on which to model the actual effect of rising interest rates on our assets and liabilities. As a result, these models may not be an accurate indicator of how our interest income will be affected by changes in interest rates.

Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond our control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest we receive on loans and securities and the interest we pay on deposits and borrowings but could also affect our ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities, and the average duration of our assets. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, our net interest income, and therefore earnings, could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings.

In addition, an increase in interest rates could also have a negative impact on our results of operations by reducing the ability of borrowers to repay their current loan obligations. These circumstances could not only result in increased loan defaults, foreclosures and charge-offs, but also necessitate further increases to the allowance for loan losses which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Changes in monetary policy and government responses to adverse economic conditions such as inflation and deflation may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our financial condition and results of operations are affected by credit policies of monetary authorities, particularly the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Actions by monetary and fiscal authorities, including the Federal Reserve, could lead to inflation, deflation, or other economic phenomena that could adversely affect our financial performance. The primary impact of inflation on our operations most likely will be reflected in increased operating costs. Conversely, deflation generally will tend to erode collateral values and diminish loan quality.

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Our bank’s size presents multiple challenges that may restrict our growth and prevent us from effectively implementing our business strategy, such as our regulatory and internal lending limits and our ability to effectively leverage our infrastructure to implement our business strategy.

We are limited in the amount our bank can loan in the aggregate to a single borrower or related borrowers by the amount of the bank’s capital. CapStar Bank is a Tennessee-chartered bank and therefore is subject to the legal lending limits of the state of Tennessee and federal law. Tennessee and federal legal lending limits are safety and soundness measures intended to prevent one person or a relatively small and economically related group of persons from borrowing an unduly large amount of a bank’s funds. They are also intended to safeguard a bank’s depositors by diversifying the risk of loan losses among a relatively large number of credit-worthy borrowers engaged in various types of businesses. Under Tennessee law, total loans and extensions of credit to a borrower generally may not exceed 15% of our bank’s capital, surplus and undivided profits. However, such loans may be in excess of that percentage, but not above 25%, if each loan in excess of 15% is first submitted to and approved in advance in writing by the board of directors and a record is kept of such written approval and reported to the board of directors quarterly. We have also established an internal limit on loans to one borrower between 7% and 15% of our risked based capital, depending upon the underlying risk rating. Loans in excess of our internal limit are noted as a policy exception and require acknowledgment by our bank’s full board of directors. Based upon our bank’s current capital levels, the amount it may lend is significantly less than that of many of our larger competitors and may discourage potential borrowers who have credit needs in excess of the bank’s lending limit from doing business with us. Our bank accommodates larger loans by selling participations in those loans to other financial institutions, but this strategy may not always be available. If we are unable to compete effectively for loans from our target clients, we may not be able to effectively implement our business strategy, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Our growth strategy involves strategic acquisitions, and we may not be able to overcome risks associated with such transactions.

We plan to continue to explore opportunities to acquire other financial institutions and businesses in or around our existing Nashville market or in comparable markets or that would involve lines of business that are additive to our existing products and services. Our acquisition activities could be material to our business and involve a number of risks, including the following:

 

the need to raise new capital;

 

the time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential acquisitions and negotiating potential transactions, resulting in our management’s attention being diverted from the operation of our existing business;

 

the lack of history among our management team in working together on acquisitions and related integration activities;

 

the time, expense and difficulty of integrating the operations and personnel of the combined businesses;

 

an inability to realize expected synergies or returns on investment;

 

failure to discover the existence of liabilities during the due diligence process;

 

exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities for which we may not be indemnified;

 

potential disruption of our ongoing banking business; and

 

a loss of key employees or key clients following an acquisition.

We may not be successful in overcoming these risks or any other problems encountered in connection with potential acquisitions. Our inability to overcome these risks could have an adverse effect on our ability to implement our business strategy and enhance shareholder value, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

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Our continued pace of growth may require us to raise additional capital in the future to fund such growth, and the unavailability of additional capital on terms acceptable to us could adversely affect us or our growth.

We believe that we have sufficient capital to meet our capital needs for our immediate growth plans. However, we will continue to need capital to support our longer-term growth plans. If capital is not available on favorable terms when we need it, we may have to either issue common stock or other securities on less than desirable terms or reduce our rate of growth until market conditions become more favorable. Either of such events could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

The fair value of our investment securities could fluctuate because of factors outside of our control, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

Factors beyond our control could significantly affect the fair value of our investment securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and continued instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause other-than-temporary impairments, or OTTI, and realized and/or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in earnings and/or other comprehensive income (loss), which could materially and adversely affect our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations. The process for determining whether impairment of a security is OTTI usually requires complex, subjective judgments about the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer, any collateral underlying the security as well as the Company’s intent and ability to hold the security for a sufficient period of time to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value in order to assess the probability of receiving all contractual principal and interest payments on the security. Our failure to assess any impairments or losses with respect to our securities could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Deterioration in the fiscal position of the U.S. federal government and downgrades in the U.S. Department of the Treasury and federal agency securities could adversely affect us and our banking operations.

The long-term outlook for the fiscal position of the U.S. federal government is uncertain, as illustrated by the 2011 downgrade by certain rating agencies of the credit rating of the U.S. government and federal agencies.

However, in addition to causing economic and financial market disruptions, any future downgrade, failure to raise the U.S. statutory debt limit, or deterioration in the fiscal outlook of the U.S. federal government, could, among other things, materially adversely affect the market value of the U.S. and other government and governmental agency securities that we hold, the availability of those securities as collateral for borrowing, and our ability to access capital markets on favorable terms. In particular, such events could increase interest rates and disrupt payment systems, money markets, and long-term or short-term fixed income markets, adversely affecting the cost and availability of funding, which could negatively affect our profitability. Also, the adverse consequences of any downgrade could extend to those to whom we extend credit and could adversely affect their ability to repay their loans. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We are subject to losses resulting from fraudulent and negligent acts on the part of loan applicants, our borrowers, other third parties, and our employees.

When we originate loans, we rely heavily upon information supplied by third parties, including the information contained in the loan application, property appraisal, title information and employment and income documentation. If any of this information is intentionally or negligently misrepresented and such misrepresentation is not detected prior to loan funding, the fair value of the loan may be significantly lower than expected. Whether a misrepresentation is made by the loan applicant, the borrower, another third party or one of our employees, we generally bear the risk of loss associated with the misrepresentation. The persons and entities involved in such a misrepresentation are often difficult to locate, and we are often unable to collect any monetary losses that we have suffered from them.

24


 

We may bear costs associated with the proliferation of computer theft and cyber-crime.

We necessarily collect, use and hold sensitive data concerning individuals and businesses with whom we have a banking relationship. Threats to data security, including unauthorized access and cyber-attacks, rapidly emerge and change, exposing us to additional costs for protection or remediation and competing time constraints to secure our data in accordance with client expectations and statutory and regulatory requirements. It is not feasible to defend against every risk being posed by changing technologies as well as criminals intent on committing cyber-crime, particularly given their increasing sophistication. Patching and other measures to protect existing systems and servers could be inadequate, especially on systems that are being retired. Controls employed by our information technology department and third-party vendors could prove inadequate. We could also experience a breach by intentional or negligent conduct on the part of our employees or other internal sources, software bugs or other technical malfunctions, or other causes. As a result of any of these threats, our client accounts may become vulnerable to account takeover schemes or cyber-fraud. Our systems and those of our third-party vendors may also become vulnerable to damage or disruption due to circumstances beyond our or their control, such as from network failures, viruses and malware, power anomalies or outages, natural disasters and catastrophic events.

A breach of our security or the security of our third-party vendors that results in unauthorized access to our data could expose us to a disruption or challenges relating to our daily operations as well as to data loss, litigation, damages, fines and penalties, client notification requirements, significant increases in compliance costs, and reputational damage, any of which could individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Our risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating risks and/or losses to us.

Our risk management framework is comprised of various processes, systems and strategies and is designed to manage the types of risk to which we are subject, including, among others, credit, liquidity, capital, financial performance, asset/liability, operational, compliance and regulatory, Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, strategic and reputational, information technology and legal. Our framework also includes financial or other modeling methodologies that involve management assumptions and judgment. Our risk management framework may not be effective under all circumstances, including if our management fails to follow our credit policies and procedures, and thus, it may not adequately mitigate any risk or loss to us. If our framework is not effective, we could suffer unexpected losses and our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. We may also be subject to potentially adverse regulatory consequences.

We depend on our information technology and telecommunications systems, and any systems failures or interruptions could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

We rely heavily on communications and information systems to conduct our business. Any failure or interruption in the operation of these systems could impair or prevent the effective operation of our client relationship management, general ledger, deposit, lending or other functions. While we have policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of a failure or interruption in the operation of our information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failures or interruptions will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. The occurrence of any failures or interruptions impacting our information systems could damage our reputation, result in a loss of clients, and expose us to additional regulatory scrutiny, civil litigation, and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are dependent upon outside third parties for the processing and handling of our records and data.

We rely on software developed by third-party vendors to process various transactions. In some cases, we have contracted with third parties to run their proprietary software on our behalf. These systems include, but are not limited to, general ledger, payroll, employee benefits, loan and deposit processing, and securities portfolio accounting. For example, one vendor provides our core banking system through a service bureau arrangement. While we perform a review of controls instituted by the applicable vendors over these programs in accordance with industry standards and perform our own testing of user controls, we rely on the continued maintenance of controls by these third-party vendors, including safeguards over the security of client data. We may incur a temporary disruption in our ability to conduct business or process transactions, or incur damage to our reputation, if the third-party vendor fails to adequately maintain internal controls or institute necessary changes to systems. Such a disruption or breach of security may have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms or at all.

25


 

We encounter technological change continually and have fewer resources than certain of our competitors to invest in technological improvements.

The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes, with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to serving clients better, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. Our success will depend in part on our ability to address our clients’ needs by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy client demands for convenience, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Certain of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements than us, and in the future, we may not be able to implement new technology-driven products and services timely, effectively or at all or be successful in marketing these products and services to our clients.   As these technologies are improved in the future, we may, in order to remain competitive, be required to make significant capital expenditures, which may increase our overall expenses and have a material adverse effect on our net income.

We may be adversely affected by the lack of soundness of other financial institutions.

Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other institutional clients. Defaults by, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial services companies, or the financial services industry generally, have led to market-wide liquidity problems in the past and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions in the future. These losses or defaults could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our lending activities.

In the course of our business, we may purchase real estate, or we may foreclose on and take title to real estate. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. Any significant environmental liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to additional credit and market risk.

We use interest rate swaps to help manage our interest rate risk from recorded financial assets and liabilities when they can be demonstrated to effectively hedge a designated asset or liability and the asset or liability exposes us to interest rate risk or risks inherent in client related derivatives.  Hedging interest rate risk is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and routine monitoring, and is not a perfect science. As a result of interest rate fluctuations, hedged assets and liabilities will appreciate or depreciate in market value. The effect of this unrealized appreciation or depreciation will generally be offset by income or loss on the derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged assets and liabilities. We also have derivatives that result from a service we provide to certain qualifying clients approved through our credit process, and therefore, are not used to manage interest rate risk in our assets or liabilities. By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what we expected when we entered into the derivative transaction. The existence of credit and market risk associated with our derivative instruments could adversely affect our net interest income and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

26


 

We are or may become involved from time to time in suits, legal proceedings, information-gathering requests, investigations and proceedings by governmental and self-regulatory agencies that may lead to adverse consequences.

Many aspects of our business involve substantial risk of legal liability. From time to time, we are, or may become, the subject of lawsuits and related legal proceedings, governmental and self-regulatory agency information-gathering requests, reviews, investigations and proceedings and other forms of regulatory inquiry, including by bank regulatory agencies, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and law enforcement authorities. The results of such proceedings could lead to significant civil or criminal penalties, including monetary penalties, damages, adverse judgments, settlements, fines, injunctions, restrictions on the way in which we conduct our business, or reputational harm.

Although we establish accruals for legal proceedings when information related to the loss contingencies represented by those matters indicates both that a loss is probable and that the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated, we may not have accruals for all legal proceedings where we face a risk of loss. In addition, due to the inherent subjectivity of the assessments and unpredictability of the outcome of legal proceedings, amounts accrued may not represent the ultimate loss to us from the legal proceedings or government or other inquiries. Thus, our ultimate losses may be higher, and possibly materially so, than the amounts accrued for legal loss contingencies, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

The Nashville MSA is susceptible to floods, tornados and other natural disasters, adverse weather events and acts of God, which may adversely affect our business and operations.

Substantially all of our business and operations are located in the Nashville MSA, which is an area that has recently been damaged by floods and tornadoes and that is susceptible to other natural disasters, adverse weather events and acts of God. Natural disasters, adverse weather events and acts of God can disrupt our operations, cause widespread property damage, and severely depress the local economies in which we operate. Any economic decline as a result of natural disasters, adverse weather events or acts of God can reduce the demand for loans and our other client solutions as well as client ability to repay such loans. In addition, the rates of delinquencies, foreclosures, bankruptcies and losses on loan portfolios may increase substantially, as uninsured property losses or sustained job interruption or loss may materially impair the ability of borrowers to repay their loans. Moreover, the value of real estate or other collateral that secures the loans could be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters, adverse weather events or acts of God. Therefore, natural disasters, adverse weather events or acts of God could result in decreased revenue and loan losses that have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Our internal controls over financial reporting may not be effective, and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to their effectiveness, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business and reputation.

We are not currently required to comply with SEC rules that implement Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and are, therefore, not required to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting for that purpose. We will be required to comply with these rules upon ceasing to be an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act.

When evaluating our internal controls over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In addition, if we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, as such standards are modified, supplemented, or amended from time to time, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing, and any remediation actions or the impact of the same on our operations. If we are not able to implement the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue an adverse opinion due to ineffective internal controls over financial reporting, and we may be subject to sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC. As a result, there could be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements. In addition, we may be required to incur costs in improving our internal control system and hiring additional personnel. Any such action could negatively affect our results of operations and cash flows.

27


 

Uncertainties in the interpretation and application of the Tax Reform Act could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate. 

The Tax Reform Act significantly changes how corporations in the United States are taxed. The Tax Reform Act requires complex computations to be performed that were not previously required by U.S. tax law, significant judgments to be made in interpretation of the provisions of the Tax Reform Act and significant estimates in calculations, and the preparation and analysis of information not previously relevant or regularly produced. The U.S. Treasury Department, the IRS, and other standard-setting bodies could interpret or issue guidance on how provisions of the Tax Reform Act will be applied or otherwise administered that is different from our interpretation. As a result, we have recorded a provisional estimate on the effect of the Tax Reform Act on our deferred tax assets in our financial statements. As additional regulatory guidance is issued by the applicable taxing authorities, as accounting treatment is clarified, as we perform additional analysis on the application of the Tax Reform Act, and as we refine estimates in calculating the effect, our final analysis, which will be recorded in the period completed, may be different from our current provisional amounts, which could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate. The impact of the Tax Reform Act on our shareholders is uncertain and could be adverse. This Report does not discuss the manner in which the Tax Reform Act might affect our shareholders.  Accordingly, we encourage our shareholders to consult with their own legal and tax advisors with respect to the Tax Reform Act and the potential tax consequences of investing in our common stock.

Risks Related to Our Industry

We are subject to extensive regulation that could limit or restrict our business activities and impose financial requirements, such as minimum capital requirements, and could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.

We operate in a highly regulated industry and are subject to examination, supervision and comprehensive regulation by various federal and state agencies including the Federal Reserve and the TDFI. Regulatory compliance is costly and restricts certain of our activities, including payment of dividends, mergers and acquisitions, investments, loans and interest rates charged, transactions with affiliates, treatment of our clients, and interest rates paid on deposits. We are also subject to financial requirements prescribed by our regulators such as minimum capitalization guidelines, which require us to maintain adequate capital to support our growth. Violations of various laws, even if unintentional, may result in significant fines or other penalties, including restrictions on branching or bank acquisitions and other activities. Recently, banks generally have faced increased regulatory sanctions and scrutiny particularly with respect to the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, or USA Patriot Act, and other statutes relating to anti-money laundering compliance and client privacy. Recent legislation has substantially changed, and increased, federal regulation of financial institutions, and there may be significant future legislation (and regulations under existing legislation) that could have a further material effect on bank holding companies like us and banks like CapStar Bank.

The laws and regulations applicable to the banking industry could change at any time, and we cannot predict the effects of these changes on our business and profitability. Because government regulation greatly affects the business and financial results of all commercial banks and bank holding companies, our cost of compliance could adversely affect our ability to operate profitably.

Federal and state regulators periodically examine our business and may require us to remediate adverse examination findings or may take enforcement action against us.

The Federal Reserve and the TDFI periodically examine our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, the Federal Reserve or the TDFI were to determine that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity or other aspects of any of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we were in violation of any law or regulation, they may take a number of different remedial actions as they deem appropriate. These actions include the power to require us to remediate any such adverse examination findings.

28


 

In addition, these agencies have the power to take enforcement action against us to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation of law or regulation or unsafe or unsound practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to direct the sale of subsidiaries or other assets, to limit dividends and distributions, to restrict our growth, to assess civil monetary penalties against us or our officers or directors, to remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate our deposit insurance and place us into receivership or conservatorship. Any regulatory enforcement action against us could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We are subject to numerous fair lending laws designed to protect consumers and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions.

The CRA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations prohibit discriminatory lending practices by financial institutions. The U.S. Department of Justice, federal banking agencies, and other federal agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. A successful regulatory challenge to an institution’s compliance with fair lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new lines of business. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.

The Bank Secrecy Act, the USA Patriot Act and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and to file reports such as suspicious activity reports and currency transaction reports. We are required to comply with these and other anti-money laundering requirements. The federal banking agencies and Financial Crimes Enforcement Network are authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and have recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts against banks and other financial service providers with the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service, or IRS. We are also subject to increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the requirement to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including our acquisition plans. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. Any of these circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Financial reform legislation has, among other things, tightened capital standards, created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and resulted in new regulations that are likely to increase our costs of operations.

As final rules and regulations implementing the Dodd-Frank Act have been adopted, this law has significantly changed the current bank regulatory framework and affected the lending, deposit, investment, trading and operating activities of banks and their holding companies. The Dodd-Frank Act requires various federal agencies to adopt a broad range of new implementing rules and regulations and to prepare numerous studies and reports for Congress. The federal agencies are given significant discretion in drafting the implementing rules and regulations, and consequently, many of the details and much of the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act depends on the rules and regulations that implement it.

Among many other changes, the Dodd-Frank Act eliminated the federal prohibitions on paying interest on demand deposits effective one year after the date of its enactment, thus allowing businesses to have interest-bearing checking accounts. Depending on competitive responses, this significant change to existing law could have an adverse impact on our interest expense. The Dodd-Frank Act permanently increased the maximum amount of deposit insurance for banks, savings institutions and credit unions to $250,000 per depositor. The Dodd-Frank Act also directs the federal banking regulators to issue rules prohibiting incentive compensation that encourages inappropriate risks.

29


 

The Dodd-Frank Act created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or the CFPB, with broad powers to supervise and enforce consumer financial protection laws. The CFPB has broad rule-making authority for a wide range of consumer protection laws that apply to all banks, including the authority to prohibit “unfair, deceptive or abusive” acts and practices.

As noted above, many aspects of the Dodd-Frank Act are subject to rulemaking and take effect over several years, making it difficult to anticipate the overall financial impact on us. However, compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations will result in additional operating and compliance costs that could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

We are required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength for our bank in times of stress.

Under federal law and long-standing Federal Reserve policy, we are expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to our bank, and to commit resources to support our bank if necessary. We may be required to commit additional resources to our bank at times when we may not be in a financial position to provide such resources or when it may not be in our, or our shareholders’ or creditors,’ best interests to do so. A requirement to provide such support is more likely during times of financial stress for us and our bank, which may make any capital we are required to raise to provide such support more expensive than it might otherwise be. In addition, any capital loans we make to our bank are subordinate in right of repayment to deposit liabilities of our bank. In the event of our bankruptcy, any commitment by us to a federal banking regulator to maintain the capital of our bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to priority of payment over general unsecured creditor claims.

Our FDIC deposit insurance premiums and assessments may increase.

The deposits of our bank are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, subject it to the payment of FDIC deposit insurance assessments as determined according to the calculation described in “Supervision and Regulation—Bank Regulation and Supervision—FDIC Insurance and Other Assessments.” High levels of bank failures since the financial crisis and increases in the statutory deposit insurance limits have increased resolution costs to the FDIC and put significant pressure on the Deposit Insurance Fund. In order to maintain a strong funding position and restore the reserve ratios of the Deposit Insurance Fund following the financial crisis, the FDIC increased deposit insurance assessment rates and charged special assessments to all FDIC-insured financial institutions. Further increases in assessment rates or special assessments may occur in the future, especially if there are significant additional financial institution failures. Any future special assessments, increases in assessment rates or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could reduce our profitability or limit our ability to pursue certain business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Even though our common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Stock Market's Global Select Market, it has less liquidity than many other stocks quoted on a national securities exchange.

The trading volume in our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market has been relatively low when compared with larger companies listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or other stock exchanges.  Because of this, it may be more difficult for stockholders to sell a substantial number of shares for the same price at which stockholders could sell a smaller number of shares.

We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of our common stock in the market, or the availability of shares of common stock for sale in the market, will have on the market price of our common stock. We can give no assurance that sales of substantial amounts of common stock in the market, or the potential for large amounts of sales in the market, would not cause the price of our common stock to decline or impair our future ability to raise capital through sales of our common stock.

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated significantly, and may fluctuate in the future. These fluctuations may be unrelated to our performance. General market or industry price declines or overall market volatility in the future could adversely affect the price of our common stock, and the current market price may not be indicative of future market prices.

30


 

A future issuance of stock could dilute the value of our common stock.

Our charter permits us to issue up to an aggregate of 25 million shares of common stock. As of December 31, 2017, 11,582,026 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding, including 187,253 shares of restricted common stock that have yet to vest. Those shares outstanding do not include the potential issuance, as of December 31, 2017, of 878,049 shares of our common stock that are issuable upon conversion of shares of our Series A Preferred Stock.  804,800 shares of our common stock subject to issuance upon exercise of outstanding stock options under the Stock Incentive Plan, 213,869 shares of our common stock that are issuable pursuant to exercise of outstanding warrants, and 154,867 additional shares of our common stock that were reserved for issuance under the Stock Incentive Plan.  A future issuance of any new shares of our common stock would, and equity-related securities could, cause further dilution in the value of our outstanding shares of common stock.

We have the ability to incur debt and pledge our assets, including our stock in our bank, to secure that debt.

We have the ability to incur debt and pledge our assets to secure that debt. Absent special and unusual circumstances, a holder of indebtedness for borrowed money has rights that are superior to those of holders of our common stock. For example, interest must be paid to a lender before dividends can be paid to our shareholders, and, in the case of liquidation, our borrowings must be repaid before we can distribute any assets to our shareholders. Furthermore, we would have to make principal and interest payments on our indebtedness, which could reduce our profitability or result in net losses on a consolidated basis even if our bank were profitable.

The rights of our common shareholders are subordinate to the rights of the holders of our Series A Preferred Stock and any debt securities that we may issue and may be subordinate to the holders of any other class of preferred stock that we may issue in the future.

As of December 31, 2017, we have 878,049 shares of Series A Preferred Stock outstanding. These shares have certain rights that are senior to our common stock. Holders of our Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends to the same extent and on the same basis as cash dividends as declared by our board of directors with respect to common stock. Such dividends on shares of Series A Preferred Stock are payable on the same dates as dividends on shares of common stock but prior to the payment of any dividends on shares of common stock. In the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of our Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive a liquidation preference of $10.25 per share of Series A Preferred Stock, plus any amount equal to all dividends declared and unpaid thereon, before any distributions can be made to the holders of our common stock.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to issue an aggregate of up to five million shares of preferred stock without any further action on the part of our shareholders. Our board of directors also has the power, without shareholder approval, to set the terms of any series of preferred stock that may be issued, including voting rights, dividend rights, and preferences over our common stock with respect to dividends or in the event of a dissolution, liquidation or winding up and other terms. Accordingly, you should assume that any shares of preferred stock that we may issue in the future will also be senior to our common stock. In the event that we issue preferred stock in the future that has preference over our common stock with respect to payment of dividends or upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or if we issue preferred stock with voting rights that dilute the voting power of our common stock, the rights of the holders of our common stock or the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.

We and our bank are subject to capital and other legal and regulatory requirements which restrict our ability to pay dividends.

We are subject to certain restrictions on the payment of cash dividends as a result of banking laws, regulations and policies. In addition, because our bank is our only material asset, our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders depends on our receipt of dividends from the bank, which is also subject to restrictions on dividends as a result of banking laws, regulations and policies. 

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We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced regulatory and reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as described in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company we may take advantage of reduced regulatory and reporting requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. These include, without limitation, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced financial reporting requirements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation, a potential exemption from new auditing standards adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and exemptions from the requirements of holding non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation and golden parachute payments.

We may take advantage of these provisions for up to five years, unless we earlier cease to be an emerging growth company, which would occur if our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.0 billion, if we issue more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt in a three-year period, or if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. Investors may find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these reduced regulatory and reporting requirements, which may result in a less active trading market and increased volatility in our stock price.

ITEM 1B.  UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2.  PROPERTIES

Our headquarters and main branch office is located at 1201 Demonbreun Street, Nashville, Tennessee 37203.   The following table summarizes pertinent details of our retail bank branch locations and mortgage origination offices as of February 26, 2018.

 

Location

  

Owned/Leased

  

Lease Expiration

  

Type of Office

CapStar Bank

1201 Demonbreun Street, Suite 700

Nashville, TN 37203

  

Leased

  

02/28/32

  

Headquarters and Main Retail Bank Branch

 

 

 

 

2321 Crestmoor Road

Nashville, TN 37215

  

Building (Owned);

Land (Leased)

  

Building: N/A

Land: 02/15/28

  

Retail Bank Branch

 

 

 

 

2002 Richard Jones Road

Nashville, TN 37215

  

Leased

  

10/31/18

  

Mortgage Origination Office

 

 

 

 

1600 Westgate Circle, Suite 150

Brentwood, TN 37027

  

Leased

  

09/14/18

  

Mortgage Origination Office

 

 

 

 

5500 Maryland Way, Suite 130

Brentwood, TN 37027

  

Leased

  

09/30/18

  

Retail Bank Branch

 

 

 

 

101 Springhouse Court

Hendersonville, TN 37075

  

Owned

  

N/A

  

Retail Bank Branch

 

 

 

 

885 Greenlea Blvd.

Gallatin, TN 37066

  

Owned

  

N/A

  

Retail Bank Branch

 

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ITEM 3.  LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

From time to time, the Company is party to legal actions that are routine and incidental to its business.  Given the nature, scope and complexity of the extensive legal and regulatory landscape applicable to the Company’s business, including laws and regulations governing consumer protection, fair lending, fair labor, privacy, information security and anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism laws, the Company, like all banking organizations, is subject to heightened legal and regulatory compliance and litigation risk.  However, based upon available information and in consultation with legal counsel, management does not expect the ultimate disposition of any or a combination of these actions to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s assets, business, cash flow, condition (financial or otherwise), liquidity, prospects and\or results of operations.

Litigation Against Gaylon M. Lawrence & The Lawrence Group

On October 31, 2017, CapStar filed a complaint, captioned CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc. v. Gaylon M. Lawrence & The Lawrence Group, Case No. 3:17-cv-01421, in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee, in connection with Mr. Lawrence and The Lawrence Group’s acquisition of CapStar stock. The complaint alleges that defendants violated Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by filing materially false and misleading Schedules 13D regarding defendants’ acquisition of a minority stake (1,156,675 shares) of CapStar stock. It also alleged that defendants violated the Change in Bank Control Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1817(j), by attempting to acquire control of CapStar without first receiving approval from the Federal Reserve, and also that defendants violated Tennessee Code Section 45-2-107 by controlling banks without having registered as a bank holding company.  

By order dated December 18, 2017, the court granted CapStar’s motion for expedited discovery, which is presently underway. Defendants have filed a motion to dismiss the action as well as a separate motion to stay, both of which remain pending.  

Mr. Lawrence has also filed an Interagency Notice of Change in Control pursuant to the Change in Bank Control Act with the Federal Reserve on October 30, 2017, seeking permission to acquire up to 15% of the outstanding voting shares of CapStar’s common stock. The Company has protested that notice. The Federal Reserve has twice extended the processing of Mr. Lawrence’s filing.

 

ITEM 4.  MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5.  MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

CapStar Financial’s common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “CSTR” and has traded on that market since September 22, 2016.  Prior to that time, there was no established public trading market for our stock.  The following table shows the high and low sales price information for our common stock for each full quarter in 2017 and 2016 as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market.

 

 

 

Price Per Share

 

 

 

High

 

 

Low

 

2017:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

22.05

 

 

$

18.52

 

Second quarter

 

 

19.53

 

 

 

16.96

 

Third quarter

 

 

19.62

 

 

 

16.00

 

Fourth quarter

 

 

22.22

 

 

 

18.73

 

2016:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

 

 

$

 

Second quarter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Third quarter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth quarter

 

 

22.35

 

 

 

15.90

 

 

As of February 26, 2018 there were 1,750 holders of record of shares of our common stock and one holder of record of shares of our non-voting common stock.

 

The following table shows information related to the repurchase of shares of common stock by the Company during the three months ended December 31, 2017.

 

 

 

Total number of

shares purchased (1)

 

 

Average price paid

per share

 

 

Total number of

shares purchased

as part of publicly

announced plan

 

 

Maximum number

of shares that may

yet be purchased

under the plan

 

October 1 - October 31

 

 

571

 

 

$

20.34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1 - November 30

 

 

27

 

 

 

18.98

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1 - December 31

 

 

153,956

 

 

 

21.79

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

154,554

 

 

$

21.78

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Activity represents shares of common stock withheld to pay purchase price and taxes due upon vesting of restricted shares and exercise of stock options and warrants.  

34


 

Stock Performance Graph

The following stock performance graph compares total shareholders return on our common stock for the period beginning at the close of trading on January 1, 2017 until December 31, 2017, with the cumulative total return of the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Bank Index for the same period.  Cumulative total return is computed by dividing the difference between the share price of our common stock at the end and the beginning of the measurement period by the share price of our common stock at the beginning of the measurement period. The performance graph assumes $100 is invested on December 31, 2016 in shares of our common stock, the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ Bank Index.  Historical stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.  The information in this paragraph and the following stock performance graph shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, other than as provided in Item 201 of Regulation S-K, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically request that such information be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporate it by reference into a filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

12/31/2016

 

 

12/31/2017

 

CSTR (CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc.)

 

$

100

 

 

$

97

 

IXIC (NASDAQ Composite Index)

 

 

100

 

 

 

128

 

BKX (NASDAQ Bank Index)

 

 

100

 

 

 

116

 

Dividend Policy

Holders of shares of our common stock are only entitled to receive dividends when, as and if declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for dividends. We have not paid any cash dividends on our capital stock since inception. As a Tennessee corporation, we are not permitted to pay dividends if, after giving effect to such payment, we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities plus any amounts needed to satisfy any preferential rights if we were dissolving.

Because we are a bank holding company and do not engage directly in business activities of a material nature, our ability to pay any dividends on our common stock depends, in large part, upon our receipt of dividends from our bank, which is also subject to numerous limitations on the payment of dividends under federal and state banking laws, regulations and policies. Pursuant to Tennessee law, our bank may not, without the prior approval of the Commissioner of the TDFI, pay any dividends to us in a calendar year in excess of the total of our bank’s net income for that year plus the retained net income for the preceding two years. For additional information, see “Business—Supervision and Regulation—Bank Regulation and Supervision—Payment of Dividends.”

35


 

Our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders in the future will depend on regulatory restrictions and our liquidity and capital requirements, as well as our earnings and financial condition, the general economic climate, contractual restrictions, our ability to service any equity or debt obligations senior to our common stock and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.

Use of Proceeds

On September 27, 2016, the Company sold 1,688,049 shares of its common stock, including 387,750 shares purchased by the underwriters pursuant to the full exercise of their purchase option, in its initial public offering (“IPO”).  In addition, certain selling shareholders participated in the IPO and sold an aggregate of 1,284,701 shares of the Company’s common stock.    

The shares were sold at a public offering price of $15.00 per share, resulting in aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $44.6 million. The aggregate offering price for the shares sold by the Company was approximately $25.3 million, and after deducting approximately $1.6 million for the underwriting discount and approximately $2.1 million of offering expenses paid to third parties, the Company received net proceeds of approximately $21.6 million.  The aggregate offering price for the shares sold by the selling shareholders was approximately $19.3 million.

All of the shares were sold pursuant to our Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-213367), which was declared effective by the SEC on September 21, 2016. The offering did not terminate until all of the shares offered were sold.  The Company made no payments to its directors, officers or persons owning ten percent or more of its common stock or to their associates, or to its affiliates in connection with the issuance and sale of the common stock.  Keefe, Bruyette & Woods, Inc. and Sandler O’Neill & Partners, L.P. acted as lead book-running managers for the initial public offering. Our common stock is currently trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “CSTR.”

There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our IPO as described in our prospectus filed with the SEC on September 23, 2016 pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) under the Securities Act. Pending application of the IPO proceeds, we have invested the net proceeds in short-term investments.

36


 

ITEM 6.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

2015

 

 

2014

 

 

2013

 

Balance Sheet Data (at period end):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

1,344,429

 

 

$

1,333,675

 

 

$

1,206,800

 

 

$

1,128,395

 

 

$

1,008,709

 

Total loans

 

 

947,537

 

 

 

935,251

 

 

 

808,396

 

 

 

713,077

 

 

 

626,382

 

Allowance for loan losses

 

 

(13,721

)

 

 

(11,634

)

 

 

(10,132

)

 

 

(11,282

)

 

 

(8,459

)

Investment securities

 

 

196,380

 

 

 

229,219

 

 

 

216,477

 

 

 

280,449

 

 

 

300,396

 

Goodwill and core deposit intangible

 

 

6,242

 

 

 

6,290

 

 

 

6,344

 

 

 

6,398

 

 

 

284

 

Total deposits

 

 

1,119,866

 

 

 

1,128,723

 

 

 

1,038,461

 

 

 

981,057

 

 

 

879,090

 

FHLB advances and securities sold under repurchase agreements

 

 

70,000

 

 

 

55,000

 

 

 

48,755

 

 

 

34,837

 

 

 

29,494

 

Shareholders' equity

 

 

146,946

 

 

 

139,207

 

 

 

108,586

 

 

 

102,651

 

 

 

96,191

 

Income Statement Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

$

51,515

 

 

$

45,395

 

 

$

40,504

 

 

$

38,287

 

 

$

41,157

 

Interest expense

 

 

9,652

 

 

 

6,931

 

 

 

5,731

 

 

 

5,871

 

 

 

6,577

 

Net interest income

 

 

41,863

 

 

 

38,464

 

 

 

34,773

 

 

 

32,416

 

 

 

34,581

 

Provision for loan losses

 

 

12,870

 

 

 

2,829

 

 

 

1,651

 

 

 

3,869

 

 

 

938

 

Net interest income after provision for loan losses

 

 

28,993

 

 

 

35,635

 

 

 

33,122

 

 

 

28,547

 

 

 

33,642

 

Non-interest income

 

 

10,908

 

 

 

11,084

 

 

 

8,884

 

 

 

7,419

 

 

 

1,946

 

Non-interest expense

 

 

33,765

 

 

 

33,129

 

 

 

30,977

 

 

 

28,562

 

 

 

25,431

 

Net income before income tax expense

 

 

6,136

 

 

 

13,590

 

 

 

11,029

 

 

 

7,404

 

 

 

10,157

 

Income tax expense

 

 

4,635

 

 

 

4,493

 

 

 

3,470

 

 

 

2,412

 

 

 

3,749

 

Net income

 

 

1,501

 

 

 

9,097

 

 

 

7,559

 

 

 

4,992

 

 

 

6,408

 

Per Share Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income per share, basic

 

$

0.13

 

 

$

0.98

 

 

$

0.89

 

 

$

0.59

 

 

$

0.75

 

Weighted average shares - basic

 

 

11,280,580

 

 

 

9,328,236

 

 

 

8,538,970

 

 

 

8,456,386

 

 

 

8,583,105

 

Net income per share, diluted

 

$

0.12

 

 

$

0.81

 

 

$

0.73

 

 

$

0.49

 

 

$

0.62

 

Weighted average shares - diluted

 

 

12,803,511

 

 

 

11,212,026

 

 

 

10,381,895

 

 

 

10,281,044

 

 

 

10,409,750

 

Book value per share of common stock

 

$

11.91

 

 

$

11.62

 

 

$

10.74

 

 

$

10.17

 

 

$

9.54

 

Tangible book value per share of common stock (1)

 

$

11.37

 

 

$

11.06

 

 

$

10.00

 

 

$

9.41

 

 

$

9.51

 

Total shares of common stock outstanding

 

 

11,582,026

 

 

 

11,204,515

 

 

 

8,577,051

 

 

 

8,471,516

 

 

 

8,353,087

 

Total shares of preferred stock outstanding

 

 

878,049

 

 

 

878,049

 

 

 

1,609,756

 

 

 

1,609,756

 

 

 

1,609,756

 

Performance Ratios:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Return on average assets

 

 

0.11

%

 

 

0.72

%

 

 

0.66

%

 

 

0.47

%

 

 

0.62

%

Return on average equity

 

 

1.05

%

 

 

7.57

%

 

 

7.08

%

 

 

4.94

%

 

 

6.46

%

Net interest margin

 

 

3.20

%

 

 

3.17

%

 

 

3.19

%

 

 

3.20

%

 

 

3.45

%

Non-interest income to average assets

 

 

0.80

%

 

 

0.88

%

 

 

0.78

%

 

 

0.70

%

 

 

0.19

%

Efficiency ratio

 

 

63.98

%

 

 

66.86

%

 

 

70.96

%

 

 

71.70

%

 

 

69.62

%

Asset Quality Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allowance for loan losses to total loans

 

 

1.45

%

 

 

1.24

%

 

 

1.25

%

 

 

1.58

%

 

 

1.35

%

Allowance for loan losses to non-performing loans

 

 

509.08

%

 

 

321.42

%

 

 

376.78

%

 

 

145.80

%

 

 

129.11

%

Non-performing assets to total assets

 

 

0.20

%

 

 

0.27

%

 

 

0.24

%

 

 

0.74

%

 

 

0.79

%

Net charge-offs to average loans

 

 

1.09

%

 

 

0.15

%

 

 

0.38

%

 

 

0.15

%

 

 

0.11

%

Capital ratios (CapStar Financial Holdings, Inc.):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total risk based capital

 

 

12.52

%

 

 

12.60

%

 

 

11.42

%

 

 

11.54

%

 

 

12.19

%

Tier 1 risk based capital

 

 

11.41

%

 

 

11.61

%

 

 

10.41

%

 

 

10.32

%

 

 

11.14

%

Common equity tier 1 capital

 

 

10.70

%

 

 

10.90

%

 

 

8.89

%

 

 

8.55

%

 

 

0.00

%

Leverage

 

 

10.77

%

 

 

10.46

%

 

 

9.33

%

 

 

8.56

%

 

 

8.96

%

 

(1)

This measure is not recognized under GAAP and is therefore considered to be a non-GAAP measure. See Non-GAAP Financial Measures — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for a reconciliation of this measure to its most comparable GAAP measure.

37


 

ITEM 7.  MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following is a discussion of our financial condition and our results of operations as of and for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.  The purpose of this discussion is to focus on information about our financial condition and results of operations which is not otherwise apparent from the Consolidated Financial Statements.  The following discussion and analysis should be read together with our Consolidated Financial Statements, the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements and the other financial information included elsewhere in this Report. In addition to historical information, this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from our current expectations. Factors that could cause such differences are discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” appearing elsewhere in this Report. We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements except to the extent required by applicable law.

The following discussion and analysis pertains to our historical results on a consolidated basis.  However, because we conduct all of our material business operations through our wholly-owned subsidiary, CapStar Bank, the following discussion and analysis relates to activities primarily conducted at the subsidiary level.

All dollar amounts in the tables in this section are in thousands of dollars, except per share data or when otherwise specifically noted.  Unless specifically noted in this Report, all references in this section to the fiscal years 2015, 2016 and 2017 mean our fiscal years ended December 31, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively.

Overview

We completed 2017 with net income of $1.5 million, a decrease of 83.5% from 2016. The decrease in our net income was primarily due to a higher provision for loan losses, resulting from $10.8 million of net charged-off loans recognized during 2017, and a $3.6 million write-down of our deferred tax assets resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (“Tax Reform Act”) that was signed into law in December 2017. The decrease in our net income was partially offset by higher net interest income resulting from continued loan growth. Diluted net income per share of common stock for 2017 was $0.12, an 85.2% decrease from 2016. Average loans for 2017 were $987.7 million, an 11.2% increase over 2016. Average deposits for 2017 were $1.108 billion, a 0.9% increase over 2016.  

Our primary revenue source is net interest income and fees from various financial services provided to customers. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on loans, investment securities and other interest earning assets less interest expense on deposit accounts and other interest bearing liabilities. Loan volume and interest rates earned on those loans are critical to overall profitability. Similarly, deposit volume is crucial to funding loans and the rates paid on deposits directly impact profitability. Business volumes are influenced by competition, new business acquisition efforts and economic factors including market interest rates, business spending and consumer confidence.

Net interest income increased $3.4 million, or 8.8%, for 2017 compared to 2016. The positive effects of increased volumes and yields on earning assets were partially offset by the negative effects of increasing deposit costs. Net interest margin increased to 3.20% for 2017, compared with 3.17% for 2016.

In response to the assessment of risk in the loan portfolio, including net loan growth and charge-offs, we recorded a $12.9 million provision for loan losses during 2017, compared to a $2.8 million provision during 2016. The increase from 2016 was caused primarily by deterioration in the credit quality of commercial and industrial loans to one borrower.  The provision for loan losses represents a charge to earnings necessary to establish an allowance for loan losses that, in management’s evaluation, is adequate to provide coverage for the estimated probable inherent losses on outstanding loans.  Our allowance for loan losses at December 31, 2017 was 1.45% of total loans, compared with 1.24% of total loans at December 31, 2016.

Total noninterest income for 2017 decreased $0.2 million, or 1.6%, compared to 2016, and comprised 17% of total revenues.

Total noninterest expense for 2017 increased $0.6 million, or 1.9%, compared to 2016. Our efficiency ratio for 2017 was 64.0% compared to 66.9% for 2016.

The Company’s effective tax rate increased to 75.5% for 2017 from 33.1% for 2016. The increase in the effective tax rate is due to a $3.6 million write-down of our deferred tax assets resulting from the Tax Reform Act.  

38


 

Tangible common equity (TCE), a non-GAAP measure, is a measure of a company's capital which is useful in evaluating the quality and adequacy of capital. The ratio of tangible common equity to total tangible assets was 9.84% as of December 31, 2017, compared with 9.34% at December 31, 2016. See Non-GAAP Financial Measures for a discussion of and reconciliation to the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure.

The following sections provide more details on subjects presented in this overview.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared based on the application of certain accounting policies, the most significant of which are described in Note 1 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2017, which are contained elsewhere in this Report. Certain of these policies require numerous estimates and strategic or economic assumptions that may prove inaccurate or subject to variation and may materially and adversely affect our reported results and financial position for the current period or future periods. The use of estimates, assumptions, and judgments are necessary when financial assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at, or adjusted to reflect, fair value. Assets carried at fair value inherently result in more financial statement volatility. Fair values and information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets and liabilities are either based on quoted market prices or are provided by other independent third-party sources, when available. When such information is not available, management estimates valuation adjustments based upon historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Management evaluates our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Changes in underlying factors, assumptions or estimates in any of these areas could have a material impact on our future financial condition and results of operations.

We have identified the following accounting policies and estimates that, due to the difficult, subjective or complex judgments and assumptions inherent in those policies and estimates and the potential sensitivity of our financial statements to those judgments and assumptions, are critical to an understanding of our financial condition and results of operations. We believe that the judgments, estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of our financial statements are reasonable and appropriate.

Allowance for Loan Losses

We record estimated probable inherent credit losses in the loan portfolio as an allowance for loan losses. The methodologies and assumptions for determining the adequacy of the overall allowance for loan losses involve significant judgments to be made by management. Some of the more critical judgments supporting our allowance for loan losses include judgments about the credit-worthiness of borrowers, estimated value of underlying collateral, assumptions about cash flow, determination of loss factors for estimating credit losses, and the impact of current events, conditions, and other factors impacting the level of inherent losses. Under different conditions or using different assumptions, the actual or estimated credit losses ultimately realized by us may be different from our estimates. In determining the allowance, we estimate losses on individual impaired loans and on groups of loans that are not impaired, where the probable loss can be identified and reasonably estimated. On a quarterly basis, we assess the risk inherent in our loan portfolio based on qualitative and quantitative trends in the portfolio, including the internal risk classification of loans, historical loss rates, changes in the nature and volume of the loan portfolio, industry or borrower concentrations, delinquency trends, detailed reviews of significant loans with identified weaknesses, and the impacts of local, regional, and national economic factors on the quality of the loan portfolio. Based on this analysis, we may record a provision for loan losses in order to maintain the allowance at appropriate levels. For a more complete discussion of the methodology employed to calculate the allowance for loan losses, see Note 1 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for the year ended December 31, 2017, which is included elsewhere in this Report.

Investment Securities Impairment

We assess on a quarterly basis whether there have been any events or economic circumstances to indicate that a security with respect to which there is an unrealized loss is impaired on an other-than-temporary basis. In any instance, we would consider many factors, including the severity and duration of the impairment, our intent and ability to hold the security for a period of time sufficient for a recovery in value, recent events specific to the issuer or industry, and, for debt securities, external credit ratings and recent downgrades. Securities with respect to which there is an unrealized loss that is deemed to be other-than-temporary are written down to fair value.

39


 

Income Taxes

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are computed using the asset and liability method, which recognizes a liability or asset representing the tax effects, based on current tax law, of future deductible or taxable amounts attributable to events recognized in the financial statements. A valuation allowance may be established to the extent necessary to reduce the deferred tax asset to a level at which it is “more likely than not” that the tax asset or benefit will be realized. Realization of tax benefits depends on having sufficient taxable income, available tax loss carrybacks or credits, the reversal of taxable temporary differences and/or tax planning strategies within the reversal period, and that current tax law allows for the realization of recorded tax benefits.

Business Combinations

Assets purchased and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recorded at their fair value. The fair value of a loan portfolio acquired in a business combination requires greater levels of management estimates and judgment than the remainder of purchased assets or assumed liabilities. When the loans have evidence of credit deterioration since origination and it is probable at the date of acquisition that the Company will not collect all contractually required principal and interest payments, the loans are considered impaired, and the expected cash flows in excess of the amount paid are recorded as interest income over the remaining life of the loan. The excess of the loan’s contractual principal and interest over expected cash flows is not recorded. We must estimate expected cash flows at each reporting date. Subsequent decreases to the expected cash flows will generally result in a provision for loan losses. Subsequent increases in cash flows result in a reversal of the provision for loan losses to the extent of prior charges and adjusted accretable yield which will have a positive impact on interest income. Purchased loans without evidence of credit deterioration are recorded at their initial fair value and adjusted as necessary for subsequent advances, pay downs, amortization or accretion of any premium or discount on purchase, charge-offs and additional provisions that may be required.

Results of Operations

The following is a summary of our results of operations:

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017-2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016-2015

 

 

 

Year ended

 

 

Percent

 

 

Year ended

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

Increase

 

 

December 31,

 

 

Increase

 

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

(Decrease)

 

 

2015

 

 

(Decrease)

 

Interest income

 

$

51,515

 

 

$

45,395

 

 

 

13.5

%

 

$

40,504

 

 

 

12.1

%

Interest expense

 

 

9,652

 

 

 

6,931

 

 

 

39.3

%

 

 

5,731

 

 

 

20.9

%

Net interest income

 

 

41,863

 

 

 

38,464

 

 

 

8.8

%

 

 

34,773

 

 

 

10.6

%

Provision for loan losses

 

 

12,870

 

 

 

2,829

 

 

 

354.9

%

 

 

1,651

 

 

 

71.4

%

Net interest income after provision for loan losses

 

 

28,993

 

 

 

35,635

 

 

 

(18.6

)%

 

 

33,122

 

 

 

7.6

%

Noninterest income

 

 

10,908

 

 

 

11,084

 

 

 

(1.6

)%

 

 

8,884

 

 

 

24.8

%

Noninterest expense

 

 

33,765

 

 

 

33,129

 

 

 

1.9

%

 

 

30,977

 

 

 

6.9

%

Net income before income taxes

 

 

6,136

 

 

 

13,590

 

 

 

(54.8

)%

 

 

11,029

 

 

 

23.2

%

Income tax expense

 

 

4,635

 

 

 

4,493

 

 

 

3.2

%

 

 

3,470

 

 

 

29.5